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We added the differences between the two simulated results for each year from 1990 to 1993 at Zhengyixia station and used that difference for comparison with the average annual water consumption of the upper-middle reaches of Heihe River (Table 8). Although the overestimated quantity of water is less than the actual consumption (approximately 34.09 to 35.23 108 m3/yr), because industrial water consumption and groundwater exploitation are not included, the variation in runoff under different situations relative to overestimated volumes is significant and demonstrated that the water flow from upstream is mainly intercepted by humans for irrigation. For a more precise simulation, the parameters of each crop type (e.g., growth days, crop coefficients and irrigation efficiency) in the GISMOD should be defined based on more detailed field investigations, and the control site could be set to distinguish the different types of crops as much as possible using locations in the various irrigation districts.

Table 8

Comparison of water amount between actual consumption and model overestimation (108/yr)

 1990199119921993Average
Overestimated water volume 34.02 34.12 34.09 34.15 34.09 
Actual water consumption 35.23 35.90 34.33 35.46 35.23 
 1990199119921993Average
Overestimated water volume 34.02 34.12 34.09 34.15 34.09 
Actual water consumption 35.23 35.90 34.33 35.46 35.23 

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