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Runoff in the upper Ganglass catchment is generated mainly from the snow melt. A summary of data during these periods is provided in Table 1. The slightly acidic to neutral pH values (5.2–7.3) of the runoff resembles the snow meltwater from the Kashmir valley (Lone & Khan 2007). EC of the meltwater is highest during the late snow melt period (50.99 ± 23.18 μs/cm), followed by early (33.93 ± 9.30 μs/cm) and peak snow melt period (26.15 ± 6.19 μs/cm). Ca and HCO3 are the most dominant ions present throughout the melt period. Cation shows a similar trend of Ca > >Mg > Na > K for the whole melt period. The anions show a regular trend of HCO3 > >SO4 > Cl > NO3 > PO4 for peak and late snow melt periods. A similar trend has been observed in surface water of SE Kashmir (Jeelani et al. 2011; Bhat et al. 2014). Deposition of alkaline dust causing alkalinity and high Ca values in the fresh snow samples of Kashmir valley has also been reported (Lone & Khan 2007).

Table 1

Major ion composition of meltwater from the upper Ganglass catchment

 Early melt period 2010
Peak melt period 2010
Late melt period 2010
RangeAverage ± SDRangeAverage ± SDRangeAverage ± SD
Discharge 0.02–1.53 0.40 ± 0.49 0.93–8.46 2.15 ± 1.14 0.13–0.97 0.42 ± 0.24 
EC 22.20–55.50 33.93 ± 9.30 17.60–37.0 26.15 ± 6.19 33.40–127.10 50.99 ± 23.18 
pH 5.2–7.3 6.6 ± 0.29 5.3–7.0 6.2 ± 0.41 6.4–7.2 6.6 ± 0.21 
Na 10–69.61 20.44 ± 13.54 8.09–52.13 19.43 ± 9.37 24.61–37.74 32.24 ± 3.75 
6.82–25.54 12.84 ± 4.42 3.69–19.87 8.16 ± 2.84 9.69–14.97 11.73 ± 0.99 
Ca 67.35–391 228 ± 75.70 94.45–243 157 ± 44.16 190–1,159 387 ± 246 
Mg 25.83–72.83 42.07 ± 12.04 24.08–59.08 36.95 ± 10.52 49.33–282 82.25 ± 44.37 
HCO3 110–440 253 ± 79.29 80–290 170 ± 59.62 200–1,450 452 ± 295 
PO3 0–4.01 1.18 ± 0.74 0.44–4.36 1.36 ± 0.62 0.09–2.68 0.91 ± 0.75 
SO4 37.96–61.90 47.52 ± 7.34 41.73–60.94 49.73 ± 4.41 41.25–62.27 48.91 ± 4.56 
NO3 0.16–2.26 0.83 ± 0.47 0.16–14.52 1.37 ± 2.90 0.65–1.45 1.04 ± 0.27 
Cl 8.18–14.10 10.98 ± 1.49 6.21–13.26 10.46 ± 1.55 9.59–13.26 11.45 ± 0.94 
H4SiO4 7.96–19.09 12.94 ± 2.78 3.62–38.29 15.17 ± 7.04 2.42–43.22 27.35 ± 6.25 
TZ+ 179–513 302 ± 90.63 135–340 222 ± 61.80 300–1,307 513 ± 274 
TZ 180–494 314 ± 75.04 131–355 233 ± 61.26 261–1,506 514 ± 295 
(Ca + Mg)/TZ+ 0.60–0.92 0.88 ± 0.06 0.77–0.91 0.88 ± 0.03 0.84–0.96 0.9 ± 0.03 
(Na + K)/TZ+ 0.08–0.4 0.12 ± 0.06 0.09–0.23 0.12 ± 0.03 0.04–0.16 0.10 ± 0.03 
(Ca + Mg)/(Na + K) 1.47–11.92 8.93 ± 2.50 3.33–10.70 7.56 ± 1.79 5.16–26.93 10.48 ± 5.46 
Ca/Na 1.07–20.91 13.53 ± 4.45 2.91–13.66 9.07 ± 2.54 5.02–33.07 11.72 ± 6.55 
Ca/Mg 1.7–6.56 5.39 ± 0.83 2.46–6.09 4.3 ± 0.65 1.69–11.42 4.71 ± 1.71 
Mg/Na 0.6–3.29 2.43 ± 0.68 0.77–3.38 2.12 ± 0.58 1.60–8.78 2.53 ± 1.30 
HCO3/Na 2.15–25 15.07 ± 5.36 2.69–15.19 9.59 ± 2.81 5.30–41.38 13.71 ± 7.91 
Na/Cl 1.01–5.71 1.87 ± 1.19 1.02–5.13 1.84 ± 0.84 1.98–3.56 2.83 ± 0.39 
K/Cl 0.62–2.72 1.19 ± 0.44 0.41–3.20 0.80 ± 0.37 0.86–1.4 1.03 ± 0.12 
C ratio 0.65–0.92 0.83 ± 0.06 0.59–0.86 0.76 ± 0.07 0.8–0.97 0.88 ± 0.04 
 Early melt period 2010
Peak melt period 2010
Late melt period 2010
RangeAverage ± SDRangeAverage ± SDRangeAverage ± SD
Discharge 0.02–1.53 0.40 ± 0.49 0.93–8.46 2.15 ± 1.14 0.13–0.97 0.42 ± 0.24 
EC 22.20–55.50 33.93 ± 9.30 17.60–37.0 26.15 ± 6.19 33.40–127.10 50.99 ± 23.18 
pH 5.2–7.3 6.6 ± 0.29 5.3–7.0 6.2 ± 0.41 6.4–7.2 6.6 ± 0.21 
Na 10–69.61 20.44 ± 13.54 8.09–52.13 19.43 ± 9.37 24.61–37.74 32.24 ± 3.75 
6.82–25.54 12.84 ± 4.42 3.69–19.87 8.16 ± 2.84 9.69–14.97 11.73 ± 0.99 
Ca 67.35–391 228 ± 75.70 94.45–243 157 ± 44.16 190–1,159 387 ± 246 
Mg 25.83–72.83 42.07 ± 12.04 24.08–59.08 36.95 ± 10.52 49.33–282 82.25 ± 44.37 
HCO3 110–440 253 ± 79.29 80–290 170 ± 59.62 200–1,450 452 ± 295 
PO3 0–4.01 1.18 ± 0.74 0.44–4.36 1.36 ± 0.62 0.09–2.68 0.91 ± 0.75 
SO4 37.96–61.90 47.52 ± 7.34 41.73–60.94 49.73 ± 4.41 41.25–62.27 48.91 ± 4.56 
NO3 0.16–2.26 0.83 ± 0.47 0.16–14.52 1.37 ± 2.90 0.65–1.45 1.04 ± 0.27 
Cl 8.18–14.10 10.98 ± 1.49 6.21–13.26 10.46 ± 1.55 9.59–13.26 11.45 ± 0.94 
H4SiO4 7.96–19.09 12.94 ± 2.78 3.62–38.29 15.17 ± 7.04 2.42–43.22 27.35 ± 6.25 
TZ+ 179–513 302 ± 90.63 135–340 222 ± 61.80 300–1,307 513 ± 274 
TZ 180–494 314 ± 75.04 131–355 233 ± 61.26 261–1,506 514 ± 295 
(Ca + Mg)/TZ+ 0.60–0.92 0.88 ± 0.06 0.77–0.91 0.88 ± 0.03 0.84–0.96 0.9 ± 0.03 
(Na + K)/TZ+ 0.08–0.4 0.12 ± 0.06 0.09–0.23 0.12 ± 0.03 0.04–0.16 0.10 ± 0.03 
(Ca + Mg)/(Na + K) 1.47–11.92 8.93 ± 2.50 3.33–10.70 7.56 ± 1.79 5.16–26.93 10.48 ± 5.46 
Ca/Na 1.07–20.91 13.53 ± 4.45 2.91–13.66 9.07 ± 2.54 5.02–33.07 11.72 ± 6.55 
Ca/Mg 1.7–6.56 5.39 ± 0.83 2.46–6.09 4.3 ± 0.65 1.69–11.42 4.71 ± 1.71 
Mg/Na 0.6–3.29 2.43 ± 0.68 0.77–3.38 2.12 ± 0.58 1.60–8.78 2.53 ± 1.30 
HCO3/Na 2.15–25 15.07 ± 5.36 2.69–15.19 9.59 ± 2.81 5.30–41.38 13.71 ± 7.91 
Na/Cl 1.01–5.71 1.87 ± 1.19 1.02–5.13 1.84 ± 0.84 1.98–3.56 2.83 ± 0.39 
K/Cl 0.62–2.72 1.19 ± 0.44 0.41–3.20 0.80 ± 0.37 0.86–1.4 1.03 ± 0.12 
C ratio 0.65–0.92 0.83 ± 0.06 0.59–0.86 0.76 ± 0.07 0.8–0.97 0.88 ± 0.04 

Units: EC in μS/cm; H4SiO4 in μmol/l; dissolved ions, TZ+, TZ in μeq/l.

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