Skip to Main Content

The main assumption in this study is that the road network constitutes the macro-scale element in a watershed that affects the routing of water. Under this assumption, the potential micro-topographic and/or surface infiltration changes brought about by road construction (Soulis & Valiantzas 2012, 2013; Soulis et al. 2015) are not explicitly considered. Given the semi-distributed nature of the modeling approach adopted (see following sections) and the watershed-scale considered relative to the actual areal coverage of road surfaces (Table 1), the impact of this assumption is likely minimal.

Table 1

Some physical catchment descriptors of the study watersheds (WS stands for watershed) showing differences between watersheds with and without roads. Watersheds are sorted ascending by the area from 1 to 20. Total roads include all types of roads (public and private roads) such as pedestrian, tributary roads, roads without pavement, etc. Main roads include roads with vehicle traffic that are classified as motorways by the Swedish Road Administration

  With roads
Without roads
WatershedAverage basin slopeWS area (km2)Total road density (m/ha)Main road density (m/ha)Total road coverage in WS (%)Main road coverage in WS (%)Main flow path (km)Basin length (km)Drainage densityWS area (km2)Main flow path (km)Basin length (km)Drainage density (m/ha)
WS 01 8.4 1.00 0.0950 0.0440 0.380 0.396 2.996 2.576 36.799 1.29 3.077 2.632 36.977 
WS 02 9.9 1.60 0.2729 0.0531 1.746 0.478 3.731 3.069 36.739 2.09 3.902 3.114 35.748 
WS 03 9.6 1.70 0.2932 0.0212 1.994 0.191 2.897 2.693 35.594 1.40 2.638 2.527 32.748 
WS 04 10.5 2.10 0.2268 0.0544 1.905 0.490 2.972 2.365 34.506 2.30 3.063 2.458 27.253 
WS 05 8.1 2.20 0.1464 0.0872 1.288 0.785 2.889 2.683 40.542 2.15 2.910 2.717 32.525 
WS 06 9.4 2.60 0.1083 0.0156 1.127 0.140 3.212 2.631 36.154 2.42 2.970 2.598 33.911 
WS 07 7.3 2.60 0.0954 0.0074 0.992 0.067 3.872 3.142 37.162 2.90 4.179 3.080 34.658 
WS 08 10.5 2.70 0.0301 0.0137 0.326 0.123 4.138 2.708 30.273 2.55 3.959 2.600 26.250 
WS 09 6.9 3.00 0.0686 0.0230 0.823 0.207 3.287 3.324 45.468 2.91 3.362 3.409 39.145 
WS 10 7.7 3.60 0.1084 0.0223 1.561 0.201 4.304 3.184 37.681 3.50 4.368 3.217 33.514 
WS 11 7.7 3.70 0.0616 0.0185 0.911 0.167 2.137 2.252 37.531 3.95 2.282 2.309 35.101 
WS 12 7.1 4.30 0.0709 0.0207 1.220 0.186 3.629 3.192 33.938 4.46 3.748 3.285 26.146 
WS 13 5.7 4.70 0.2533 0.0310 1.474 0.279 4.608 2.092 34.072 5.10 4.731 2.132 30.322 
WS 14 9.6 5.00 0.0670 0.0219 4.761 0.197 5.008 4.328 37.019 4.24 4.854 4.505 36.707 
WS 15 9.5 5.10 0.1437 0.0190 2.932 0.171 4.772 3.467 34.324 5.24 4.893 3.518 30.776 
WS 16 10.0 5.40 0.1331 0.0092 2.874 0.083 8.411 7.410 33.495 5.13 8.493 7.501 31.665 
WS 17 9.9 6.90 0.1330 0.0195 3.670 0.176 5.925 4.801 36.488 7.15 6.017 4.869 37.553 
WS 18 8.4 8.70 0.0950 0.0298 4.988 0.268 5.016 3.512 39.586 8.68 4.948 3.481 38.781 
WS 19 9.9 8.70 0.2729 0.0213 2.934 0.192 6.483 5.061 35.634 7.77 6.211 4.953 33.057 
WS 20 9.6 9.10 0.2932 0.0019 3.894 0.017 9.330 7.507 32.559 8.88 9.258 7.604 30.942 
  With roads
Without roads
WatershedAverage basin slopeWS area (km2)Total road density (m/ha)Main road density (m/ha)Total road coverage in WS (%)Main road coverage in WS (%)Main flow path (km)Basin length (km)Drainage densityWS area (km2)Main flow path (km)Basin length (km)Drainage density (m/ha)
WS 01 8.4 1.00 0.0950 0.0440 0.380 0.396 2.996 2.576 36.799 1.29 3.077 2.632 36.977 
WS 02 9.9 1.60 0.2729 0.0531 1.746 0.478 3.731 3.069 36.739 2.09 3.902 3.114 35.748 
WS 03 9.6 1.70 0.2932 0.0212 1.994 0.191 2.897 2.693 35.594 1.40 2.638 2.527 32.748 
WS 04 10.5 2.10 0.2268 0.0544 1.905 0.490 2.972 2.365 34.506 2.30 3.063 2.458 27.253 
WS 05 8.1 2.20 0.1464 0.0872 1.288 0.785 2.889 2.683 40.542 2.15 2.910 2.717 32.525 
WS 06 9.4 2.60 0.1083 0.0156 1.127 0.140 3.212 2.631 36.154 2.42 2.970 2.598 33.911 
WS 07 7.3 2.60 0.0954 0.0074 0.992 0.067 3.872 3.142 37.162 2.90 4.179 3.080 34.658 
WS 08 10.5 2.70 0.0301 0.0137 0.326 0.123 4.138 2.708 30.273 2.55 3.959 2.600 26.250 
WS 09 6.9 3.00 0.0686 0.0230 0.823 0.207 3.287 3.324 45.468 2.91 3.362 3.409 39.145 
WS 10 7.7 3.60 0.1084 0.0223 1.561 0.201 4.304 3.184 37.681 3.50 4.368 3.217 33.514 
WS 11 7.7 3.70 0.0616 0.0185 0.911 0.167 2.137 2.252 37.531 3.95 2.282 2.309 35.101 
WS 12 7.1 4.30 0.0709 0.0207 1.220 0.186 3.629 3.192 33.938 4.46 3.748 3.285 26.146 
WS 13 5.7 4.70 0.2533 0.0310 1.474 0.279 4.608 2.092 34.072 5.10 4.731 2.132 30.322 
WS 14 9.6 5.00 0.0670 0.0219 4.761 0.197 5.008 4.328 37.019 4.24 4.854 4.505 36.707 
WS 15 9.5 5.10 0.1437 0.0190 2.932 0.171 4.772 3.467 34.324 5.24 4.893 3.518 30.776 
WS 16 10.0 5.40 0.1331 0.0092 2.874 0.083 8.411 7.410 33.495 5.13 8.493 7.501 31.665 
WS 17 9.9 6.90 0.1330 0.0195 3.670 0.176 5.925 4.801 36.488 7.15 6.017 4.869 37.553 
WS 18 8.4 8.70 0.0950 0.0298 4.988 0.268 5.016 3.512 39.586 8.68 4.948 3.481 38.781 
WS 19 9.9 8.70 0.2729 0.0213 2.934 0.192 6.483 5.061 35.634 7.77 6.211 4.953 33.057 
WS 20 9.6 9.10 0.2932 0.0019 3.894 0.017 9.330 7.507 32.559 8.88 9.258 7.604 30.942 

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal