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Multivariate statistical analysis suggests that the groundwater could be subdivided into eight compositionally distinctive groups. Although division was set out only on the basis of major ions, further analysis of the trace elements, NO3 and NH4+, showed significant dependence on the eight groups, thus proving appropriate division of them. The results are summarized in Table 2.

Table 2

Main geochemical and hydrogeological characteristics of each cluster

Cluster (sample size)Dominant sampling sourcePositive PC scoresAverage deptha (m)Aquifer materialDominant aquifersAverage TDS1 (mg/l)Median groundwater typeCharacteristics parameters
C1 (N = 218) MW, WS, SP, PW PC1 and PC2 4–100 Sandstone, sand, dolomite, till Q, D3gj, middle Devonian 520–700 Ca–Mg–HCO3 – 
C2 (N = 213) MW, WS, PW PC2; PC1 or PC3 4–90 Sandstone, sand, dolomite Q, D3gj, middle Devonian 400–500 Ca–Mg–HCO3 Highest median Al values 
C3 (N = 223) PW, SP, DR PC2 and PC3 or PC2 and PC1 2–7 Till, sand, dolomite Q, D3pl-slp 570–750 Ca–Mg–HCO3 Highest median Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn, NO3 values 
C4 (N = 115) WS, MW PC1 and PC3 65–170 Sandstone Middle and lower Devonian 780–1,520 Ca–Mg–Na–Cl–SO4 Highest median B, Br, Rb, Sb, Se, V values 
C5 (N = 98) MW, WS, SP PC3 15–100 Sandstone, dolomite, gypsum D3pl-slp, D3gj 800–2,050 Ca–Mg–SO4 Highest median Cu, F, Li, Sr values 
C6 (N = 242) PW, SP, MW None or PC3 3–15 Sand, sandstone Q, D3gj, D2br 170–300 Ca–Mg–HCO3 Low median trace element, nitrogen compound, TDS values 
C7 (N = 240) SP, PW, WS PC2 or PC2 and PC3 3–50 Sand, sandstone, dolomite Q, upper and middle Devonian 410–490 Ca–Mg–HCO3 – 
C8 (N = 93) MW, WS PC2 or PC2 and PC1 25–75 Sandstone, dolomite Upper and middle Devonian 420–570 Ca–Mg–HCO3 Highest median As, Ba, Fetot, Si, NH4+ values (low SO42−, Cl, NO3
Cluster (sample size)Dominant sampling sourcePositive PC scoresAverage deptha (m)Aquifer materialDominant aquifersAverage TDS1 (mg/l)Median groundwater typeCharacteristics parameters
C1 (N = 218) MW, WS, SP, PW PC1 and PC2 4–100 Sandstone, sand, dolomite, till Q, D3gj, middle Devonian 520–700 Ca–Mg–HCO3 – 
C2 (N = 213) MW, WS, PW PC2; PC1 or PC3 4–90 Sandstone, sand, dolomite Q, D3gj, middle Devonian 400–500 Ca–Mg–HCO3 Highest median Al values 
C3 (N = 223) PW, SP, DR PC2 and PC3 or PC2 and PC1 2–7 Till, sand, dolomite Q, D3pl-slp 570–750 Ca–Mg–HCO3 Highest median Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn, NO3 values 
C4 (N = 115) WS, MW PC1 and PC3 65–170 Sandstone Middle and lower Devonian 780–1,520 Ca–Mg–Na–Cl–SO4 Highest median B, Br, Rb, Sb, Se, V values 
C5 (N = 98) MW, WS, SP PC3 15–100 Sandstone, dolomite, gypsum D3pl-slp, D3gj 800–2,050 Ca–Mg–SO4 Highest median Cu, F, Li, Sr values 
C6 (N = 242) PW, SP, MW None or PC3 3–15 Sand, sandstone Q, D3gj, D2br 170–300 Ca–Mg–HCO3 Low median trace element, nitrogen compound, TDS values 
C7 (N = 240) SP, PW, WS PC2 or PC2 and PC3 3–50 Sand, sandstone, dolomite Q, upper and middle Devonian 410–490 Ca–Mg–HCO3 – 
C8 (N = 93) MW, WS PC2 or PC2 and PC1 25–75 Sandstone, dolomite Upper and middle Devonian 420–570 Ca–Mg–HCO3 Highest median As, Ba, Fetot, Si, NH4+ values (low SO42−, Cl, NO3

aExpressed as 25th and 75th percentile.

MW, monitoring well; WS, water supply well; SP, spring; PW, project well (Levins & Gosk 2007); DR, drainage.

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