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Two hydrological models were used to simulate current and future daily discharge for the ÖA, VA and VA: HBV (Light) (Seibert & Vis 2012) and HQsim (Kleindienst 1996). HBV (Light) is a user-friendly version of the semi-distributed conceptual HBV-96 model of Bergström et al. (1992), which uses the concept of elevation vegetation units (EVUs). HQsim is a semi-distributed conceptual model based on the concept of hydrological response units (HRUs) and uses the BROOK model of Federer & Lash (1978) as foundation. More detailed information of the key characteristics and the contrasts between both models is given in Table 1.

Table 1

Key characteristics of HBV and HQsim

Hydrological modelHBV (Light)HQsim
Model structure Snow, glacier, soil, groundwater, and routing routine Snow, glacier, vegetation, soil, groundwater, and routing modules 
Spatial representation EVUs HRUs 
Input variables Temperature, precipitation, observed discharge, potential evapotranspiration Temperature, precipitation, observed discharge, potential evapotranspiration 
Potential evapotranspiration Temperature-based approach (Hamon 1961) Temperature-based approach (Hamon 1961) 
Glacier melt, snow melt and accumulation Degree-day approach with aspect and albedo correction (Konz & Seibert 2010) Degree-day approach, distinguishing the effects of aspect, slope, and inclination of the sun (Hock 1999) 
Glacier outflow Glacier storage-outflow relationship (Stahl et al. 2008) Integrated glacier module, consisting of three internal reservoirs representing, snow, firn and ice 
Overland flow Linear groundwater reservoir Simulated for each HRU. Depending on fraction of area contributing area, which is a function of soil water content (Achleitner et al. 2012) 
Subsurface flow Linear groundwater reservoir Simulated with Mualem van Genuchten approach (van Genuchten 1980) 
Baseflow Linear groundwater reservoir Linear groundwater reservoir 
Routing Triangular weighting function Approach of Rickenmann (1996)  
Hydrological modelHBV (Light)HQsim
Model structure Snow, glacier, soil, groundwater, and routing routine Snow, glacier, vegetation, soil, groundwater, and routing modules 
Spatial representation EVUs HRUs 
Input variables Temperature, precipitation, observed discharge, potential evapotranspiration Temperature, precipitation, observed discharge, potential evapotranspiration 
Potential evapotranspiration Temperature-based approach (Hamon 1961) Temperature-based approach (Hamon 1961) 
Glacier melt, snow melt and accumulation Degree-day approach with aspect and albedo correction (Konz & Seibert 2010) Degree-day approach, distinguishing the effects of aspect, slope, and inclination of the sun (Hock 1999) 
Glacier outflow Glacier storage-outflow relationship (Stahl et al. 2008) Integrated glacier module, consisting of three internal reservoirs representing, snow, firn and ice 
Overland flow Linear groundwater reservoir Simulated for each HRU. Depending on fraction of area contributing area, which is a function of soil water content (Achleitner et al. 2012) 
Subsurface flow Linear groundwater reservoir Simulated with Mualem van Genuchten approach (van Genuchten 1980) 
Baseflow Linear groundwater reservoir Linear groundwater reservoir 
Routing Triangular weighting function Approach of Rickenmann (1996)  

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