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The ANS contained quartz sands (grain diameters 0.5–1 and 2–4 mm), volcanic materials (2–4 mm), zeolites (2–4 mm), and activated carbon (2–4 mm) similar to those in the AES, and more densely packed filter materials (Table 3). Specifically, there was less quartz sand of larger sizes and volcanic materials added in the ANS than in the AES to create a relatively lower porosity relative to the AES. Wood chips and sawdust were obtained locally and crushed into particles (diameter 2–4 mm) by a small high-speed pulverizer (ZN-04, Kingslh Co., China) after washing and drying.

Table 3

Components of filter materials

Quartz sand (S)Quartz sand (L)Volcanic materialZeoliteActivated carbonScrap iron filingsSawdust and grass powder
Stage(%, v/v)(%, v/v)(%, v/v)(%, v/v)(%, v/v)(%, v/v)(%, v/v)
AES 30 35 20 10 – – 
ANS 50 15 10 10 
Quartz sand (S)Quartz sand (L)Volcanic materialZeoliteActivated carbonScrap iron filingsSawdust and grass powder
Stage(%, v/v)(%, v/v)(%, v/v)(%, v/v)(%, v/v)(%, v/v)(%, v/v)
AES 30 35 20 10 – – 
ANS 50 15 10 10 

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