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Recharge below 1 m depth was estimated at 10 sites from June 23, 2009 to July 12, 2010: two grasslands (OPEN1 – abandoned pasture, OPEN2 – hay field), three mixed hardwood (MH) stands, three young RP (YP) and two old RP (OP) plantations (Figure 1; Table 1). All were on outcropping glaciofluvial sands and gravels on either Pontypool sand or Pontypool gravely sand soils, and were on level ground to minimize potential for lateral water flow. Areas with minimal undergrowth were selected to limit the effects of undergrowth interception and increased permeability associated with undergrowth root networks (Greenwood & Buttle 2014a).

Table 1

Site characteristics

Study siteYear plantedTrees ha−1Basal area (m2 ha−1)Mean canopy density (%)Red pine (%)White oak (%)Sugar maple (%)American beech (%)Long grass (%)
MH1 NA 775 32.2 23–91 6.4 35.5 48.4 9.7 
MH2 NA 825 42 21–93 51.5 33.3 15.2 
MH3 NA 1150 32.4 23–93 50 41.3 8.7 
YP1 1981 1550 26.9 68.3 100 
YP2 1981 1275 26.3 77.9 100 
YP3 1983 1500 39.2 78.3 100 
OP1 1948 525 35 86.2 100 
OP3 1947 450 37.5 82.2 100 
OPEN1 NA 100 
OPEN2 NA 100 
Study siteYear plantedTrees ha−1Basal area (m2 ha−1)Mean canopy density (%)Red pine (%)White oak (%)Sugar maple (%)American beech (%)Long grass (%)
MH1 NA 775 32.2 23–91 6.4 35.5 48.4 9.7 
MH2 NA 825 42 21–93 51.5 33.3 15.2 
MH3 NA 1150 32.4 23–93 50 41.3 8.7 
YP1 1981 1550 26.9 68.3 100 
YP2 1981 1275 26.3 77.9 100 
YP3 1983 1500 39.2 78.3 100 
OP1 1948 525 35 86.2 100 
OP3 1947 450 37.5 82.2 100 
OPEN1 NA 100 
OPEN2 NA 100 

The range in the MH sites' mean canopy density represents the leaf-off (minimum) and leaf-on (maximum) extremes.

NA, data not available.

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