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In Tyrol, manual snow measurements are available from the hydrological year 1952/53. HS and SWE are sampled weekly by staff of the Tyrolean Hydrological Service in the close proximity of meteorological stations. These ‘station data’ are the basis for a regional-scale application accounting for an area of more than 12,000 km² (Figure 1). For measuring SWE, snow pits are dug to ensure that no snow is lost when the core is extracted from the pack. Additionally, data from a snow pillow at Kühtai (1,930 m a.s.l.) are used (Kirnbauer & Blöschl 1990) to densify the data pool at higher elevations. For consistency with the other station data, only one measured pair of HS and SWE from the snow pillow per week (randomly picked) in the period 1993–2010 is added to the calibration dataset. Overall, data from 35 stations were compiled for the period of 1952 to 2010. The mean observation length is 33 years and the data cover mainly the months from November to May. The stations are located at elevations between 528 and 2,036 m a.s.l., covering approximately 60% of the area of the province of Tyrol (Figure 1). Following Jonas et al. (2009), quality checks were carried out using ρ computed from HS and SWE, with data rejected where the computed ρ was outside the range of 50–600 kg m−3. Table 1 provides information about the snow data, the providers and the application of the data for calibration or validation.

Table 1

Meta information on the different snow datasets

Parameter
Spatial scaleType#HSSWEρTemporal scalePeriodSourceUsage
Regional scale Tyrolean station data 12,108 ✓ ✓ ✓ Weekly 1953–2010 (winter season) HDT, BMLFUW Calibration 
Snow pillow Kühtai 425 ✓ ✓ ✓ Sampled: 15 min used: daily mean 1993–2010 (winter season) TIWAG 
Snow pillow Kühtai 3,362 ✓ ✓ ✓ Sampled: 15 min used: daily mean 1993–2010 (winter season) TIWAG Validation 
Snow course data 762 ✓ ✓ ✓ Monthly–yearly 1966–2011 (January–May) TIWAG, BMLFUW, BADW, alpS, IMGI 
Watershed scale Snow course data (WB) (HS soundings) 1,080 ✓   Yearly 1977–2011 (end of April/beginning of May) BADW, alpS, IMGI Spatial and temporal characteristics 
Snow course data (WB)a 240 ✓ ✓ ✓ Yearly 1977–2011 (end of April/beginning of May) TIWAG, BMLFUW, BADW Calibration 
Snow course data (WB)a 71 ✓ ✓ ✓ Yearly 1960–2011 (end of April/beginning of May) IMGI, alpS, BADW, HSB, UFR Validation 
Parameter
Spatial scaleType#HSSWEρTemporal scalePeriodSourceUsage
Regional scale Tyrolean station data 12,108 ✓ ✓ ✓ Weekly 1953–2010 (winter season) HDT, BMLFUW Calibration 
Snow pillow Kühtai 425 ✓ ✓ ✓ Sampled: 15 min used: daily mean 1993–2010 (winter season) TIWAG 
Snow pillow Kühtai 3,362 ✓ ✓ ✓ Sampled: 15 min used: daily mean 1993–2010 (winter season) TIWAG Validation 
Snow course data 762 ✓ ✓ ✓ Monthly–yearly 1966–2011 (January–May) TIWAG, BMLFUW, BADW, alpS, IMGI 
Watershed scale Snow course data (WB) (HS soundings) 1,080 ✓   Yearly 1977–2011 (end of April/beginning of May) BADW, alpS, IMGI Spatial and temporal characteristics 
Snow course data (WB)a 240 ✓ ✓ ✓ Yearly 1977–2011 (end of April/beginning of May) TIWAG, BMLFUW, BADW Calibration 
Snow course data (WB)a 71 ✓ ✓ ✓ Yearly 1960–2011 (end of April/beginning of May) IMGI, alpS, BADW, HSB, UFR Validation 

aSubset of snow course data measured end of April/beginning of May.

Sources: TIWAG, Tyrolean Hydropower Company, Innsbruck, Austria; BMLFUW, Hydrographic Yearbooks of Austria, see BMLFUW (1953–2010); HDT, Hydrographic Service Tyrol, Innsbruck; BADW, Commission for Glaciology of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Munich; alpS, Centre for Climate Change Adaptation, Innsbruck; IMGI, Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics, University of Innsbruck; UFR, Unit of Geography, University of Fribourg, Switzerland and Huss & Bauder (2009) and Huss et al. (2013); HSB, Hydrological Service Bolzano, South Tyrol/Italy (Glacier Report 2006–2010; http://www.provinz.bz.it/wetter/glacierreport.asp).

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