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Historical daily streamflows at 24 hydrologic stations (Figure 1) were simulated using the XAJ model fed with the observed precipitation and air temperature data. This paper focused on the simulated streamflow at three streamflow stations to represent the hydrologic situations of the three main rivers in the Pearl River basin, namely, Wuxuan (control area: 196,255 km2, West River), Shijiao (control area: 38,363 km2, North River), and Boluo (control area: 25,325 km2, East River) hydrologic stations. According to the suggestion by Moriasi et al. (2007), streamflow simulations with BIAS < ±0.10 and NASH >0.75 are ‘very good’ simulations. Table 1 shows that the XAJ model can provide ‘very good’ streamflow simulations in calibration and validation periods, except for the Boluo station in validation periods with NASH being slightly lower than 0.75. In terms of BIAS and NASH, the modeling accuracy is similar to previous studies on streamflow simulations in the Pearl River basin (Jiang et al. 2007; Liu et al. 2012; Niu et al. 2013). The observed streamflow at all three rivers represents various typical high-flow events and low flow periods, and the XAJ model is proven capable of capturing most of the flood peaks and low flow processes (Figure 4).
Table 1

Performance of daily streamflow simulations at three chosen stations in the Pearl River basin

Calibration
Validation
Regions in the Pearl River basinStreamflow stationsTime periodNASHBIAS (%)Time periodNASHBIAS (%)
West River Wuxuan 1969–1979 0.922 0.5 1980–1989 0.892 −0.3 
North River Shijiao 1961–1979 0.908 −3.2 1980–1989 0.889 2.4 
East River Boluo 1961–1979 0.843 1.3 1980–1989 0.744 8.4 
Calibration
Validation
Regions in the Pearl River basinStreamflow stationsTime periodNASHBIAS (%)Time periodNASHBIAS (%)
West River Wuxuan 1969–1979 0.922 0.5 1980–1989 0.892 −0.3 
North River Shijiao 1961–1979 0.908 −3.2 1980–1989 0.889 2.4 
East River Boluo 1961–1979 0.843 1.3 1980–1989 0.744 8.4 

NASH is the Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient and BIAS is the relative error (BIAS) between the simulated and the observed total streamflow.

Figure 4

Observed and simulated historical daily streamflow: (a) Wuxuan, (b) Shijiao, and (c) Boluo stations during 1978–1981.

Figure 4

Observed and simulated historical daily streamflow: (a) Wuxuan, (b) Shijiao, and (c) Boluo stations during 1978–1981.

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