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The experiments were conducted in 2004–2005 and 2007–2008, and the treatments in the two growth seasons were denoted as ‘T1’ and ‘T2’, respectively. The planting crop was winter wheat (T. aestivum L.). The field management and the development of the growth stage of winter wheat are shown in Tables 2 and 3. Three constant groundwater depths were 0.7, 1.1 and 1.5 m in the period from 23 March to 8 June 2005 during which the treatments received precipitation (Table 4). There was only one constant groundwater depth, 1.5 m, in the period from 20 March to 5 June 2008 during which the treatment did not receive precipitation. To quantify the ETgw under the condition without irrigation, no irrigation was applied for all experiment treatments in both growth seasons.

Table 2

Field management in experiment period

Experiment periodVarietyPlanting dateSeed rate (kg ha−1)Nitrogen application (kg ha−1)
2004–2005 13 line 14 October 2004 180 626 
2007–2008 Kenong 199 21 October 2007 240 300 
Experiment periodVarietyPlanting dateSeed rate (kg ha−1)Nitrogen application (kg ha−1)
2004–2005 13 line 14 October 2004 180 626 
2007–2008 Kenong 199 21 October 2007 240 300 
Table 3

Growth stages of winter wheat

Experiment periodEmergenceRegreenJointingEaringFloweringFillingHarvest
2004–2005 19 October 2004 17 March 2005 5 April 2005 28 April 2005 3 May 2005 7 May 2005 8 June 2005 
2007–2008 26 October 2007 3 March 2008 5 April 2008 18 April 2008 25 April 2008 29 April 2008 5 June 2008 
Experiment periodEmergenceRegreenJointingEaringFloweringFillingHarvest
2004–2005 19 October 2004 17 March 2005 5 April 2005 28 April 2005 3 May 2005 7 May 2005 8 June 2005 
2007–2008 26 October 2007 3 March 2008 5 April 2008 18 April 2008 25 April 2008 29 April 2008 5 June 2008 
Table 4

Experiment treatments in the two growth seasons

Experiment periodTreatmentGroundwater depth (m)Precipitation (mm)Irrigation (mm)
23 March 2005, ∼6.8 T1 (70) 0.7 75.1 – 
T1 (110) 1.1 75.1 – 
T1 (150) 1.5 75.1 – 
20 March 2008, ∼6.5 T2 (150) 1.5 – – 
Experiment periodTreatmentGroundwater depth (m)Precipitation (mm)Irrigation (mm)
23 March 2005, ∼6.8 T1 (70) 0.7 75.1 – 
T1 (110) 1.1 75.1 – 
T1 (150) 1.5 75.1 – 
20 March 2008, ∼6.5 T2 (150) 1.5 – – 

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