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For the calibration period, the comparison between the measured and simulated soil water storages in the 0–60 cm layer is shown in Figure 2(a). There was a general good agreement between the measured and simulated values. The RE values in the calibration period were, respectively, 0.5, −4.5 and −1.9% for T1(70), T1(110) and T1(150), and RMSE varied from 6.32 to 9.20 mm (Table 6). Figure 3 indicates that the simulated daily ETgw agreed well with the measured values. Moreover, the influences of precipitations on daily ETgw were reflected well by model simulation. Owing to the three precipitations more than 10.0 mm (29.5, 18.6 and 10.9 mm on 19 April, 5 May and 17 May, respectively), the measured ETgw of T1 (70) was influenced temporarily but significantly (Figure 3(a)), while that of T1 (110) and T1 (150) declined slightly because of the thicker unsaturated zone (Figure 3(b) and 3(c)). The daily ETgw values were overestimated for the three treatments in the calibration period. Similarly with soil water storage, T1 (70) also had the smallest RE and T1 (110) had the largest one for daily ETgw. With increasing groundwater depth, RMSE decreased from 1.54 to 0.67 mm d−1.
Table 6

Statistics of the measured and simulated soil water storages in the 0–60 cm layer and ETgw in 2005 and 2008

Soil water storage
ETgw
YearTreatmentRE (%)RMSE (mm)RE (%)RMSE (mm d−1)
2005 (Calibration) T1 (70) 0.5 9.20 0.1 1.54 
T1 (110) − 4.5 8.68 10.1 0.83 
T1 (150) − 1.9 6.32 9.9 0.67 
2008 (Validation) T2 (150) − 2.6 6.91 6.0 0.67 
Soil water storage
ETgw
YearTreatmentRE (%)RMSE (mm)RE (%)RMSE (mm d−1)
2005 (Calibration) T1 (70) 0.5 9.20 0.1 1.54 
T1 (110) − 4.5 8.68 10.1 0.83 
T1 (150) − 1.9 6.32 9.9 0.67 
2008 (Validation) T2 (150) − 2.6 6.91 6.0 0.67 
Figure 2

Comparison between the measured and simulated soil water storages in the 0–60 cm layer for calibration (2005) and validation (2008) periods.

Figure 2

Comparison between the measured and simulated soil water storages in the 0–60 cm layer for calibration (2005) and validation (2008) periods.

Figure 3

Comparison between the measured and simulated process of daily ETgw for calibration (2005) and validation (2008) periods.

Figure 3

Comparison between the measured and simulated process of daily ETgw for calibration (2005) and validation (2008) periods.

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