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The volume-weighted mean concentrations (VWMs) of components in the rainwater were calculated based on the rainfall amount and rainwater quality data of 25 rainfall events during 2011–2012. TOC has a VWM of 3.98 mg/L, which is the highest among all the measured components; Ca2+ and NH4+ have VWMs of 0.86 mg/L and 0.47 mg/L, respectively, which are much higher than the other cations; NO3 and SO42– have VWMs of 1.74 mg/L and 1.71 mg/L, respectively, which are much higher than the other inorganic anions; and formic acid and acetic acid have VWMs of 0.26 mg/L and 0.12 mg/L, respectively, which are higher than the other organic acids. Furthermore, the VWMs of PO43–, glutaric acid, succinic acid, malonic acid, methanesulfonic acid in the samples are lower than 0.1 mg/L, and some of them are lower than detective limits. In addition, the VWM pH in the rainwater is 4.99, showing the acidity of rainfall in the study area. The concentrations of components in rainwater in the study area are lower than those in Guangzhou, Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, Ankara and Galicia; while they are similar to those in other cities listed in Table 3. Water quality of rainwater in rainfall events is shown in a box-whisker plot, which indicates that the concentrations of components in the rainwater are highly variable, dependent upon different rainfall events (Figure 2(a)).
Table 3

The volume-weighted mean pH and component concentrations in rainwater in Shenzhen and other cities (mg/L)

AreaTimepHNa+NH4+K+Mg2+Ca2+ClNO3SO42–Reference
This study 2011 4.99 0.235 0.473 0.180 0.042 0.857 0.554 1.743 1.712  
Guangzhou 2006 4.56 1.265 1.271 1.283 0.204 2.072 3.077 3.311 7.838 Cao et al. (2009)  
Shanghai 2005 4.49 1.152 1.453 0.581 0.355 4.08 2.067 3.088 9.581 Huang et al. (2008)  
Beijing 2003 6.18 1.346 6.768 1.564 1.92 7.94 2.935 10.788 25.008 Hu et al. (2005)  
Jinhua 2004 4.54 0.173 1.746 0.207 0.053 1.122 0.365 2.294 5.611 Zhang et al. (2007)  
Nanjing 1992–2003 5.15 0.529 3.478 0.472 0.38 5.908 5.055 2.455 11.606 Tu et al. (2005)  
Mexico 2001–2002 5.08 0.161 1.663 0.086 0.03 0.528 0.34 2.641 2.971 Báez et al. (2007)  
Ankara 1994–1996 6.3 0.359 1.555 0.382 0.112 1.428 0.723 1.81 2.304 Topçu et al. (2002)  
Singapore 1999–2000 4.2 0.754 0.344 0.281 0.078 0.322 1.212 1.383 4.008 Hu et al. (2003)  
Tokyo 1990–2002 4.52 0.851 0.727 0.113 0.138 0.498 1.957 1.891 2.41 Okuda et al. (2005)  
Seoul 1996–1998 4.7 0.242 1.195 0.137 0.083 0.698 0.645 1.854 3.403 Lee et al. (2000)  
Galicia 1999 6.55 3.358 4.536 1.599 0.528 1.7 6.097 1.55 4.752 Vázquez et al. (2003)  
Newark 2006–2007 4.6 0.251 0.439 0.051 0.04 0.12 0.379 0.893 1.829 Song & Gao (2009)  
AreaTimepHNa+NH4+K+Mg2+Ca2+ClNO3SO42–Reference
This study 2011 4.99 0.235 0.473 0.180 0.042 0.857 0.554 1.743 1.712  
Guangzhou 2006 4.56 1.265 1.271 1.283 0.204 2.072 3.077 3.311 7.838 Cao et al. (2009)  
Shanghai 2005 4.49 1.152 1.453 0.581 0.355 4.08 2.067 3.088 9.581 Huang et al. (2008)  
Beijing 2003 6.18 1.346 6.768 1.564 1.92 7.94 2.935 10.788 25.008 Hu et al. (2005)  
Jinhua 2004 4.54 0.173 1.746 0.207 0.053 1.122 0.365 2.294 5.611 Zhang et al. (2007)  
Nanjing 1992–2003 5.15 0.529 3.478 0.472 0.38 5.908 5.055 2.455 11.606 Tu et al. (2005)  
Mexico 2001–2002 5.08 0.161 1.663 0.086 0.03 0.528 0.34 2.641 2.971 Báez et al. (2007)  
Ankara 1994–1996 6.3 0.359 1.555 0.382 0.112 1.428 0.723 1.81 2.304 Topçu et al. (2002)  
Singapore 1999–2000 4.2 0.754 0.344 0.281 0.078 0.322 1.212 1.383 4.008 Hu et al. (2003)  
Tokyo 1990–2002 4.52 0.851 0.727 0.113 0.138 0.498 1.957 1.891 2.41 Okuda et al. (2005)  
Seoul 1996–1998 4.7 0.242 1.195 0.137 0.083 0.698 0.645 1.854 3.403 Lee et al. (2000)  
Galicia 1999 6.55 3.358 4.536 1.599 0.528 1.7 6.097 1.55 4.752 Vázquez et al. (2003)  
Newark 2006–2007 4.6 0.251 0.439 0.051 0.04 0.12 0.379 0.893 1.829 Song & Gao (2009)  
Figure 2

Water quality of rainwater and roof runoff in rainfall events.

Figure 2

Water quality of rainwater and roof runoff in rainfall events.

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