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The mean discharge of Goryczkowe Vaucluse Spring during the study period was approximately 500 L s−1, which was almost double the rate for Bystrej Górne Vaucluse Spring (Table 1). Based on the Meinzer (1927) classification, Goryczkowe Vaucluse Spring qualifies as a Class 2 spring, while Bystrej Górne Vaucluse Spring qualifies as a Class 3 spring. However, at high water stages, Bystrej Górne Vaucluse Spring may be classified as a Class 2 spring. Fifteen parameters of water were analyzed. In most cases, differences between mean values were not significant (Figure 6). The water temperature for Goryczkowe Vaucluse Spring was higher by an average of 0.4 °C. However, the mean water temperature of both springs oscillated at about 4.5 °C, and exhibited only small fluctuations during the study period. This water temperature range corresponds to the mean annual air temperature in the region, which is 4 to 6° C (Hess 1965). A higher pH was noted for Goryczkowe Vaucluse Spring versus Bystrej Górne Vaucluse Spring. The mean annual pH for both springs oscillates at about 8, and Cv oscillates at about 2%. The same pattern held true for mineral content (TDS): Bystrej Górne Vaucluse Spring (103.6 mg L−1), Goryczkowe Vaucluse Spring (84.1 mg L−1). Hence, these are very low mineral content waters, which is linked with the drainage of contributing areas with similar geology resistant to leaching. The lack of significant differences in the physical and chemical parameters of water obtained from the two studied springs leads to the conclusion that both springs' contributing areas may be similar in terms of geology. The largest anion concentration in the water samples obtained from Goryczkowe and Bystrej Górne Springs is that of , while the largest cation concentration is that of Ca2+ (Table 1). The concentrations of other ions were found to be much smaller. The biogenic ion with the largest concentration was usually . The concentrations of , , Li+, Br, and F were usually below detection limits. The cation order based on concentration was the following for both springs: Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+. The anion order based on concentration was the following for both springs: . The sequence of ion concentrations shows that these water samples represent typical shallow circulation groundwater in the temperate climate zone. The analysis of relationships between ion concentrations, as shown in the Piper diagram (Figure 7) and that shown in Table 2 indicate that the water chemistry of the studied springs varies. Lodowe Źródło Vaucluse Spring is the most typical Tatra vaucluse spring and drains exclusively calcium and dolomite formations. Its mineral content is the highest in this study. Chochołowskie and Goryczkowe vaucluse springs are characterized by low values of chemical parameters, as they drain the crystalline core of the Tatras and their period of contact with karst rocks is brief. The anion with the smallest Cv in the case of both springs was . The cation with the smallest Cv in the case of both springs was Na+. The largest Cv values for Goryczkowe Vaucluse Spring were those of K+ and . The largest Cv values for Bystrej Górne Vaucluse Spring were those of and Cl. The Cv of the concentration of Ca2+ and ions indicates a high degree of variance in the two studied springs; however, research on other springs in the Tatra region has shown that the concentration of Ca2+ and ions is very stable over the course of the year (Cv <15%) (Wolanin & Żelazny 2010; Żelazny et al. 2013a, b). Karst springs characterized by Ca2+ variances of more than 5% experience rapid recharge and transmission (Vesper & White 2004). Conduit springs are characterized by larger variances (Cv =10–24%) in water hardness over the course of the year than diffuse springs (Cv < 5%) (Shuster & White 1971). Water hardness of Goryczkowe Vaucluse Spring water averaged 1.08 mval L−1 and its coefficient of variation was 25.5%, while the corresponding values for Bystrej Górne Vaucluse Spring were 1.31 mval L−1 and 20.0% (Table 1). The calcium (rCa) to magnesium (rMg) ratio in Goryczkowe Vaucluse Spring water was determined to be 3.11 (mean value), while that of Bystrej Górne Vaucluse Spring water was −2.90. The calculated rCa/rMg ratios suggest that the studied springs' waters circulate within dolomite limestone or karst systems formed of limestone and dolomite (White 2006). However, the slightly higher average rCa/rMg ratio for Goryczkowe Vaucluse Spring may indicate that its waters flow primarily through limestone (Jacobson & Langmuir 1970). However, this type of interpretation is insufficient. As mentioned earlier, the TDS of both studied springs is low, which indicates that the tested water's composition is shaped in geological formations resistant to leaching. These formations may include solely rocks of the crystalline core of the Tatras (e.g., granitoid, gneiss, schist). Goryczkowe Vaucluse Spring is recharged by waters drained from High Tatra granitoids. The higher mineral content of waters exiting Bystrej Górne Vaucluse Spring suggests that these waters originate on slopes composed of more soluble rocks. Figure 8 shows the mean value of EC25°C and the concentration of Mg2+ versus 1,018 springs in Tatra National Park. When compared with empirical density functions calculated with reference to lithological conditions, water obtained from Goryczkowe and Bystrej Górne vaucluse springs appears to resemble water obtained from springs draining the Tatra crystalline core (Nos 1, 2 and 4) rather than springs draining sedimentary rocks such as dolomite and limestone (No. 5). On the other hand, the concentration of the magnesium ion is markedly higher in springs draining Goryczkowe-type granite. Hence, the lower rCa/rMg ratio for Bystrej Górne Vaucluse Spring water most likely results from drainage of the western, upper part of the Tatra crystalline core formed of Goryczkowe-type granite as well as some gneiss and schist (Figure 9). Values of the calcite saturation index (SIc) ranged from −0.25 to −1.01 for Goryczkowe Vaucluse Spring, and from −0.09 to −1.09 for Bystrej Górne Vaucluse Spring (Table 1). Next, the SId ranged from −1.14 to −2.81 for Goryczkowe Spring, and from −0.85 to −2.88 for Bystrej Górne Vaucluse Spring. Negative values of SIc and SId indicate that both studied springs are unsaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite and aggressiveness with respect to calcium carbonate and dolomite. The conduit system where water flows rapidly and reacts quickly to rainstorms is characterized by low saturation index values (Jawad & Hussien 1986). Figure 10 shows seasonal changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of water obtained from Goryczkowe and Bystrej Górne vaucluse springs. The highest values were noted for the winter months (January–March) and the lowest for spring and summer (April–July). The opposite is true of discharge in the case of both springs. High discharge was noted for spring and summer, and low discharge for winter. High discharge values are associated with the melting of snow cover during the spring and high precipitation in the summer. Spring water temperature patterns are also a key indicator of seasonal change (Shuster & White 1971). High water temperatures were noted for Goryczkowe Vaucluse Spring in the summer and low temperatures were noted in the winter, according to research by Davies (1991) and Wicks (1997). The opposite pattern was observed in the case of Bystrej Górne Vaucluse Spring – low water temperatures in the summer and high temperatures in the winter. This suggests that the spring's water is supplied via a different circulation system. Two factors that differentiate the contributing areas of the studied springs in terms of water temperature are water circulation patterns and the presence of lakes above ponors in Sucha Woda Valley, where water that exits Lake Zielony Staw and other sources is absorbed by the karst system of Goryczkowe Vaucluse Spring via ponors. There are no lakes in Bystrej Valley; therefore, water enters Giewont Massif, formed of karst rocks and caves, via diffuse flow. ANOVA results indicate that seasonal differences between mean values of discharge as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the studied springs are not statistically significant. A lack of differences in mean values may suggest that chemical behavior affects the properties of each vaucluse spring (Raeisi & Karami 1997).
Table 1

Physical and chemical characteristics of two vaucluse springs

DischargeTemperatureEC25°CHardnessTDS
(L s−1)(°C)pH(μS cm−1)(mval·L−1)(mg L−1)Ca2+Mg2+Na+K+NH4+HCO3SO42−ClNO3rCa/rMgSIcSId
Mean Bystrej Górne Vaucluse Spring 258 4.4 7.91 123.8 1.31 103.6 19.43 4.08 0.91 0.33 0.023 70.93 5.52 0.44 1.80 2.90 − 0.55 − 1.78 
Median 244 4.4 7.93 123.8 1.31 101.1 19.35 4.29 0.92 0.33 0.023 69.43 5.64 0.40 1.75 2.87 − 0.52 − 1.70 
Min 197 4.3 7.46 92.0 0.92 79.3 13.76 2.76 0.76 0.25 0.002 55.10 4.27 0.31 1.61 2.61 − 1.09 − 2.88 
Max 339 4.6 8.25 155.2 1.69 133.1 25.38 5.15 1.14 0.44 0.061 91.51 6.71 0.82 2.12 3.50 − 0.09 − 0.85 
Q25% 217 4.4 7.69 112.0 1.14 91.6 16.75 3.43 0.83 0.27 0.003 62.73 4.57 0.31 1.66 2.75 − 0.80 − 2.27 
Q75% 300 4.5 8.18 138.5 1.48 115.8 22.32 4.65 0.94 0.38 0.040 78.63 6.27 0.51 1.98 2.98 − 0.29 − 1.21 
Cv (%) 19.6 2.2 3.3 16.8 20.0 16.6 20.4 20.1 10.5 19.4 89.2 16.0 16.4 35.1 9.8 8.1 57.1 36.5 
Mean Goryczkowe Vaucluse Spring 484 4.8 8.13 105.2 1.08 84.1 16.28 3.28 0.95 0.43 0.021 51.24 9.67 0.40 1.73 3.11 − 0.55 − 1.79 
Median 404 4.8 8.14 103.4 1.01 80.8 15.07 3.19 0.95 0.31 0.010 49.77 9.36 0.36 1.73 2.93 − 0.52 − 1.70 
Min 105 4.6 7.87 61.2 0.60 48.2 9.55 1.52 0.74 0.23 0.002 29.40 4.36 0.29 1.61 2.71 − 1.01 − 2.81 
Max 1164 5.0 8.40 145.0 1.55 117.7 23.49 4.64 1.15 1.95 0.066 72.80 15.34 0.69 1.90 4.27 − 0.25 − 1.14 
Q25% 194 4.8 8.01 91.1 0.88 73.3 13.68 2.61 0.90 0.24 0.003 46.26 6.54 0.32 1.63 2.83 − 0.66 − 2.02 
Q75% 656 4.9 8.26 121.4 1.33 99.7 19.57 4.24 0.99 0.35 0.043 59.56 13.13 0.46 1.82 3.17 − 0.38 − 1.41 
Cv (%) 76.9 2.4 2.0 22.5 25.5 23.2 24.0 30.7 11.1 111.7 105.4 22.9 39.0 28.7 5.9 15.0 44.1 30.4 
DischargeTemperatureEC25°CHardnessTDS
(L s−1)(°C)pH(μS cm−1)(mval·L−1)(mg L−1)Ca2+Mg2+Na+K+NH4+HCO3SO42−ClNO3rCa/rMgSIcSId
Mean Bystrej Górne Vaucluse Spring 258 4.4 7.91 123.8 1.31 103.6 19.43 4.08 0.91 0.33 0.023 70.93 5.52 0.44 1.80 2.90 − 0.55 − 1.78 
Median 244 4.4 7.93 123.8 1.31 101.1 19.35 4.29 0.92 0.33 0.023 69.43 5.64 0.40 1.75 2.87 − 0.52 − 1.70 
Min 197 4.3 7.46 92.0 0.92 79.3 13.76 2.76 0.76 0.25 0.002 55.10 4.27 0.31 1.61 2.61 − 1.09 − 2.88 
Max 339 4.6 8.25 155.2 1.69 133.1 25.38 5.15 1.14 0.44 0.061 91.51 6.71 0.82 2.12 3.50 − 0.09 − 0.85 
Q25% 217 4.4 7.69 112.0 1.14 91.6 16.75 3.43 0.83 0.27 0.003 62.73 4.57 0.31 1.66 2.75 − 0.80 − 2.27 
Q75% 300 4.5 8.18 138.5 1.48 115.8 22.32 4.65 0.94 0.38 0.040 78.63 6.27 0.51 1.98 2.98 − 0.29 − 1.21 
Cv (%) 19.6 2.2 3.3 16.8 20.0 16.6 20.4 20.1 10.5 19.4 89.2 16.0 16.4 35.1 9.8 8.1 57.1 36.5 
Mean Goryczkowe Vaucluse Spring 484 4.8 8.13 105.2 1.08 84.1 16.28 3.28 0.95 0.43 0.021 51.24 9.67 0.40 1.73 3.11 − 0.55 − 1.79 
Median 404 4.8 8.14 103.4 1.01 80.8 15.07 3.19 0.95 0.31 0.010 49.77 9.36 0.36 1.73 2.93 − 0.52 − 1.70 
Min 105 4.6 7.87 61.2 0.60 48.2 9.55 1.52 0.74 0.23 0.002 29.40 4.36 0.29 1.61 2.71 − 1.01 − 2.81 
Max 1164 5.0 8.40 145.0 1.55 117.7 23.49 4.64 1.15 1.95 0.066 72.80 15.34 0.69 1.90 4.27 − 0.25 − 1.14 
Q25% 194 4.8 8.01 91.1 0.88 73.3 13.68 2.61 0.90 0.24 0.003 46.26 6.54 0.32 1.63 2.83 − 0.66 − 2.02 
Q75% 656 4.9 8.26 121.4 1.33 99.7 19.57 4.24 0.99 0.35 0.043 59.56 13.13 0.46 1.82 3.17 − 0.38 − 1.41 
Cv (%) 76.9 2.4 2.0 22.5 25.5 23.2 24.0 30.7 11.1 111.7 105.4 22.9 39.0 28.7 5.9 15.0 44.1 30.4 
Table 2

Mean physical and chemical characteristics of three vaucluse springs in Tatra National Park (Żelazny et al. 2013a)

FeatureUnitsChochołowskie Vaucluse SpringŹródło Lodowe Vaucluse SpringOlczyskie Vaucluse Spring
Temperature (°C) 5.0 4.5 4.5 
pH (pH) 8.01 8.08 8.24 
EC25°C (μS cm−1178.3 201.6 131.4 
TDS (mg L−1145.9 176.9 111.9 
Ca2+ 24.74 36.21 16.83 
Mg2+ 8.33 5.62 6.95 
Na+ 0.78 0.44 0.78 
K+ 0.43 0.51 0.34 
 94.11 126.15 77.49 
 15.01 5.62 7.03 
Cl 0.51 0.49 0.42 
 1.98 1.78 2.03 
FeatureUnitsChochołowskie Vaucluse SpringŹródło Lodowe Vaucluse SpringOlczyskie Vaucluse Spring
Temperature (°C) 5.0 4.5 4.5 
pH (pH) 8.01 8.08 8.24 
EC25°C (μS cm−1178.3 201.6 131.4 
TDS (mg L−1145.9 176.9 111.9 
Ca2+ 24.74 36.21 16.83 
Mg2+ 8.33 5.62 6.95 
Na+ 0.78 0.44 0.78 
K+ 0.43 0.51 0.34 
 94.11 126.15 77.49 
 15.01 5.62 7.03 
Cl 0.51 0.49 0.42 
 1.98 1.78 2.03 
Figure 6

Physical and chemical characteristics of Goryczkowe and Bystrej Górne spring water. A lack of significant differences between the two springs is marked with a rectangle.

Figure 6

Physical and chemical characteristics of Goryczkowe and Bystrej Górne spring water. A lack of significant differences between the two springs is marked with a rectangle.

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Figure 7

Water chemistry of Vaucluse springs in the Tatras expressed using a Piper diagram.

Figure 7

Water chemistry of Vaucluse springs in the Tatras expressed using a Piper diagram.

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Figure 8

Electrolytic conductivity and concentration of magnesium in Tatra area vaucluse springs versus all 1,018 springs in the Tatra Mountains, expressed using empirical probability density functions for chemical characteristics of spring water in relation to geological and lithological condition.

Figure 8

Electrolytic conductivity and concentration of magnesium in Tatra area vaucluse springs versus all 1,018 springs in the Tatra Mountains, expressed using empirical probability density functions for chemical characteristics of spring water in relation to geological and lithological condition.

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Figure 9

Most probable contributing area for Bystrej Górne Vaucluse Spring.

Figure 9

Most probable contributing area for Bystrej Górne Vaucluse Spring.

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Figure 10

Seasonal changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of Goryczkowe Vaucluse Spring and Bystrej Górne Vaucluse Spring.

Figure 10

Seasonal changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of Goryczkowe Vaucluse Spring and Bystrej Górne Vaucluse Spring.

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