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The calibration is conducted by both a manual method and an automatic method using the Shuffle Complex Evolution algorithm developed at the University of Arizona. Table 1 shows 10 parameters for each land type of SLURP and their assigned ranges. The goodness-of-fit of the performance of the hydrological model was assessed using the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), determination coefficient (R2), and deviation of volume (DV), defined as follows:
formula
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formula
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formula
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where Hobs,i is the observed streamflow on day i; Hsim,i is the simulated streamflow on day i; n is the number of simulated days, and is the average measured streamflow.
Table 1

Parameters used in calibration and assigned values for the Kaidu River watershed

ParametersLower boundUpper boundSensitivity
Initial contents of snow store (mm) 1,000 Low 
Initial contents of slow store (%) 100 Low 
Maximum infiltration rate (mm/d) 10 1,000 Low 
Manning roughness (n0.0001 0.1 Low 
RF (d) 50 High 
MF (mm) 10 500 High 
RS (d) 10 500 High 
Maximum capacity for slow store (mm) 100 1,000 Medium 
PF 0.8 15 High 
Rain/snow division temperature (°C) −2 Medium 
ParametersLower boundUpper boundSensitivity
Initial contents of snow store (mm) 1,000 Low 
Initial contents of slow store (%) 100 Low 
Maximum infiltration rate (mm/d) 10 1,000 Low 
Manning roughness (n0.0001 0.1 Low 
RF (d) 50 High 
MF (mm) 10 500 High 
RS (d) 10 500 High 
Maximum capacity for slow store (mm) 100 1,000 Medium 
PF 0.8 15 High 
Rain/snow division temperature (°C) −2 Medium 
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