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Wheat bran is an agricultural by-product which can be used for the removal of heavy metals and is obtained from the shell of flour mill wheat seeds. It is economically viable, biodegradable and consists of many nutrients such as protein, minerals, fatty acids and dietary fibres (Kaya et al. 2014). It has various organic functional groups with a surface area of 441 m2/g and a fixed carbon content of 31.78% (Singh et al. 2009). It has various functional groups, such as methoxy, phenolic hydroxyl and carbonyl, that have the ability to bind heavy metals (Ravat et al. 2000). Farajzadeh & Monji (2004) demonstrated the removal of chromium using wheat bran with a maximum adsorption capacity of 93 mg/g and a maximum removal of 89%. Wheat bran can be modified by using different acids to increase removal capacity (Al-Khaldi et al. 2015). The thermo-chemical interaction between wheat bran and acids increases with temperature. Thus, Özer & Özer (2004) modified wheat bran using sulphuric acid and demonstrated chromium removal with an adsorption capacity of up to 133 mg/g at an optimum pH of 1.5. Kaya et al. (2014) used tartaric acid for modification of wheat bran and reported a 51% removal without modification, while after modification, removal was up to 90% at pH 2 and the maximum adsorption capacity was reported to be 4.53 mg of Cr(VI)/g and 5.28 mg of Cr(VI)/g at pH 2.2, without and with modification, respectively. Table 7 summarises the reported use of modified wheat bran as an adsorbent for chromium removal.

Table 7

Chromium removal using modified wheat bran as an adsorbent

AdsorbentMetal concentration (mg/L)Optimum pHBest model fitContact time (min)Adsorbent dose (g/L)Adsorbent capacity (mg/g)Removal per cent (%)References
Wheat bran 20 ̶ 20 80 93 89% Farajzadeh & Monji (2004)  
Wheat bran modified using sulphuric acid 50, 100 1.5 Langmuir 300 2.0 133 99.9% Özer & Özer (2004)  
Wheat bran modified using tartaric acid 52 2, 2.2 Freundlich 15–1,440 20 5.28 90% Kaya et al. (2014)  
AdsorbentMetal concentration (mg/L)Optimum pHBest model fitContact time (min)Adsorbent dose (g/L)Adsorbent capacity (mg/g)Removal per cent (%)References
Wheat bran 20 ̶ 20 80 93 89% Farajzadeh & Monji (2004)  
Wheat bran modified using sulphuric acid 50, 100 1.5 Langmuir 300 2.0 133 99.9% Özer & Özer (2004)  
Wheat bran modified using tartaric acid 52 2, 2.2 Freundlich 15–1,440 20 5.28 90% Kaya et al. (2014)  

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