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Eichornia utilized for the preparation of adsorbents was procured from the local fields in Delhi. It was washed with distilled water several times and kept in an oven overnight at 120°C for thermal activation, and was then ground to fine powder and sieved through a standard sieve (Sonar GSMS, Mumbai, India) to obtain particles of size up to 0.3 and 1.0 mm. This was termed untreated Eichhornia (EU). The prepared Eichhornia was treated with 1% formaldehyde solution to remove the color and then with distilled water to remove impurities and excess formaldehyde and oven-dried at 105°C for 12 hours to prepare Eichhornia-treated (ET) adsorbent. The various physico-chemical characteristics of Eichhornia (treated and untreated) are presented in Table 1.

Table 1

Characteristics of adsorbents

ParameterET (0.3 mm)EU (0.3 mm)
pH 7.2 7.2 
Conductivity (μS cm−12.3 2.3 
Bulk density (g cc−10.80 0.75 
Moisture (%) 10 8.69 
Volatile matter (%) 26.50 26.50 
Solubility in water (%) 1.35 1.39 
Solubility in acid (%, 0.25 M HCl) 1.01 1.02 
Surface area (m2 g−1327 215 
Loss on ignition (%) 51.5 52 
Porosity (%) 14.89 15.72 
Particle density (g cm−20.94 0.89 
ParameterET (0.3 mm)EU (0.3 mm)
pH 7.2 7.2 
Conductivity (μS cm−12.3 2.3 
Bulk density (g cc−10.80 0.75 
Moisture (%) 10 8.69 
Volatile matter (%) 26.50 26.50 
Solubility in water (%) 1.35 1.39 
Solubility in acid (%, 0.25 M HCl) 1.01 1.02 
Surface area (m2 g−1327 215 
Loss on ignition (%) 51.5 52 
Porosity (%) 14.89 15.72 
Particle density (g cm−20.94 0.89 

Note: pH and conductivity were measured in the suspension phase using pH and EC meters, respectively.

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