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The ingestion volumes of reclaimed water (V) relating to river cleaning and boating were determined by referring to research conducted by Samuel et al. (2011) on the estimation of water consumption during various activities. In that research, studies were conducted to estimate water ingestion during boating, fishing, swimming, etc. by using a mass-balance approach, as described by Dufour et al. (2006), according to the characterized self-reported estimates of water ingestion among 3,367 participants. For road flushing, V was recommended by He et al. (2006) according to a field investigation of exposure-related factors such as respiratory rate, skin surface area, exposure duration, etc. for wastewater reclamation and utilization in Beijing. The annual exposure frequency (n) for each route was determined based on field investigations of Lake Cui. Details of the parameter values are summarized in Table 2.

Table 2

Exposure parameters and associated values for different exposure routes

Exposure routeIngestion volume of reclaimed water (V) (mL/time)Exposure frequency (n) (times/year)Reference
River cleaning 3.7 ml/time 40 times/y Samuel et al. (2011)  
Boating 3.7 ml/time 14.9 times/y Sun et al. (2013)  
Road flushing 60 ml/time 164.8 times/y He et al. (2006)  
Exposure routeIngestion volume of reclaimed water (V) (mL/time)Exposure frequency (n) (times/year)Reference
River cleaning 3.7 ml/time 40 times/y Samuel et al. (2011)  
Boating 3.7 ml/time 14.9 times/y Sun et al. (2013)  
Road flushing 60 ml/time 164.8 times/y He et al. (2006)  

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