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The disease burden attributed to E. coli and norovirus was calculated based on Equations (9)–(11), and the results are summarized in Table 8. A total disease burden of 2.40 × 10−11 DALYs per person per year (pppy) was estimated. E. coli made the largest contribution of 2.23 × 10−11 DALYs pppy, accounting for 93.05% of the total disease burden estimation. The contribution of norovirus was estimated at 1.67 × 10−12 DALYs pppy, accounting for 6.95% of the total disease burden. Thus, for a decrease in total disease burden, the concentration of E. coli needs to be significantly further reduced.

Table 8

Results of disease burden calculation

DALY (pppys)E. coliNorovirusTotalPercentage
River cleaning 4.75 × 10−14 4.75 × 10−14 0.20% 
Boating 1.77 × 10−14 1.77 × 10−14 0.07% 
Road flushing 2.22 × 10−11 1.67 × 10−12 2.39 × 10−11 99.73% 
Total 2.23 × 10−11 1.67 × 10−12 2.40 × 10−11  
Percentage 93.05% 6.95%   
DALY (pppys)E. coliNorovirusTotalPercentage
River cleaning 4.75 × 10−14 4.75 × 10−14 0.20% 
Boating 1.77 × 10−14 1.77 × 10−14 0.07% 
Road flushing 2.22 × 10−11 1.67 × 10−12 2.39 × 10−11 99.73% 
Total 2.23 × 10−11 1.67 × 10−12 2.40 × 10−11  
Percentage 93.05% 6.95%   

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