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The main construction and development of municipal wastewater collection and treatment in Iran relates to the Islamic revolution period in 1978. Now, Iran, with 150 municipal WWTPs, covers 23 million inhabitants and the total collected wastewater is more than 3.5 million m3/d. The actual total capacity of treated wastewater is 2.698 million m3/d, with a nominal capacity of 3.802 million m3/d, and 87 treatment plants with a total capacity of 1.598 million m3/d are under construction (NWWE 2014). Based on government data (MOE 2010), the trends for produced municipal and rural wastewater to 2021 are shown in Figure 2. Typical main characteristics of BOD, COD, TSS, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorus (TP), and fecal coliforms of municipal wastewater mixed with surface runoff, WWTP effluent, and output standards, published by the Iran Department of Environment for discharge and reuse of wastewater, are presented in Table 4 (Nasseri et al. 2008; MOE 2010).
Table 4

Main characteristics of wastewater mixed with surface runoff, and standards of discharge

Approved standards
ParameterUnitWastewater + Surface runoffDischarge into injection wellsDischarge into surface waterAgricultural reuse
BOD5 Mg/L 60–220 30 30 100 
COD Mg/L 260–460 60 60 200 
TSS Mg/L 270–600 – 40 100 
Total nitrogen Mg/L 4–17 21 62.5 – 
Total phosphorus Mg/L 1.2–2.8 – 
Fecal coliforms MPN 105–106 400 400 400 
Approved standards
ParameterUnitWastewater + Surface runoffDischarge into injection wellsDischarge into surface waterAgricultural reuse
BOD5 Mg/L 60–220 30 30 100 
COD Mg/L 260–460 60 60 200 
TSS Mg/L 270–600 – 40 100 
Total nitrogen Mg/L 4–17 21 62.5 – 
Total phosphorus Mg/L 1.2–2.8 – 
Fecal coliforms MPN 105–106 400 400 400 
Figure 2

Trend of produced municipal and rural wastewater.

Figure 2

Trend of produced municipal and rural wastewater.

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