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Many kinds of adsorbents have been used to remove phosphate from wastewater. To illustrate the potential in the use of the modified fly ash for removal of phosphate from wastewater, a comparative evaluation of the adsorption capacities of various phosphate adsorbents reported in the literature are presented in Table 3. From Table 3 it can be seen that the phosphate sorption capacity of the modified fly ash was slightly lower than that of metal-loaded orange waste and is almost equivalent to that of hydroxy-aluminum pillared bentonite. The phosphate sorption capacity of the modified fly ash was relatively greater than that of magnetic biochar, magnetic iron oxide, ZnCl2-activated carbon, ground burnt patties and zeolite. The results indicate that modified fly ash is a potential adsorbent for the removal of phosphate.

Table 3

Phosphate adsorption by different adsorbents

AdsorbentAdsorption capacity (mg/g)Reference
Modified fly ash 12.69 Present study 
Magnetic biochar 1.24 Chen et al. (2011)  
Magnetic iron oxide 5.03 Yoon et al. (2014)  
ZnCl2-activated carbon 5.1 Namasivayam & Sangeetha (2004)  
Hydroxy-aluminum pillared bentonite 12.7 Yan et al. (2010)  
Metal-loaded orange waste 14 Biswas et al. (2007)  
Ground burnt patties 0.41 Rout et al. (2014)  
Zeolite 2.15 Sakadevan & Bavor (1998)  
AdsorbentAdsorption capacity (mg/g)Reference
Modified fly ash 12.69 Present study 
Magnetic biochar 1.24 Chen et al. (2011)  
Magnetic iron oxide 5.03 Yoon et al. (2014)  
ZnCl2-activated carbon 5.1 Namasivayam & Sangeetha (2004)  
Hydroxy-aluminum pillared bentonite 12.7 Yan et al. (2010)  
Metal-loaded orange waste 14 Biswas et al. (2007)  
Ground burnt patties 0.41 Rout et al. (2014)  
Zeolite 2.15 Sakadevan & Bavor (1998)  

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