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Devices used in this study included a pH meter (Hach-HQ40D), an ultrasonic bath (Starsonic 18–35, Italy), a 15-watt UV-C lamp (Philips) with an irradiation intensity of 22.5 μw/cm2, a peristaltic pump (OEM Model), an air pump (Dolphin EP-30), a magnetic stirrer (Frago Hs 102) and a spectrophotometer (UV/Vis, Optima SP-3000 Plus, Japan). Chemicals used in this research were MB dye (Merck Co., Germany) (Table 1) and titanium dioxide (Degussa P25) of Anatas Type made in Germany (in the form of powder) (Figure 1). Other chemicals were purchased from Merck Co.
Table 1

Characteristics of MB dye

ParameterValue
Chemical structure  
Dye type Cationic 
Abbreviation MB 
Chemical formula C16H18N3ClS 
λmax (nm) 640 
Molecular weight (g/mol) 319.85 
ParameterValue
Chemical structure  
Dye type Cationic 
Abbreviation MB 
Chemical formula C16H18N3ClS 
λmax (nm) 640 
Molecular weight (g/mol) 319.85 
Figure 1

Characterization of TiO2. (a) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM); (b) energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).

Figure 1

Characterization of TiO2. (a) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM); (b) energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).

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