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The experiments were carried out with effluent obtained from Romi Batik (Chendering, Terengganu). Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of the feed solutions, while Figure 1 illustrates the physical appearance of two different concentrations of the batik effluent. The membranes were made of CA and PVDF. The properties of the membranes are shown in Table 2. New membranes were soaked in pure water overnight prior to each run in order to remove the preservative liquids before the membranes could be used. Experiments were performed using Millipore UHP 62 stirred cell, as shown in Figure 2.
Table 1

Characteristics of the feed solution

Characteristic 
pH 11.89 
Concentrations 77 and 22 ppm 
Physical characteristics Blue solution 
Concentrated color 
Odorless 
Characteristic 
pH 11.89 
Concentrations 77 and 22 ppm 
Physical characteristics Blue solution 
Concentrated color 
Odorless 
Table 2

The properties of membranes

MembranePVDFCA
Manufacturer Sterlitech Sterlitech 
Material PVDF CA 
Surface property Hydrophobic Hydrophilic 
Pore size 0.20 μm 0.22 μm 
Thickness ∼125 μm ∼110 μm 
MembranePVDFCA
Manufacturer Sterlitech Sterlitech 
Material PVDF CA 
Surface property Hydrophobic Hydrophilic 
Pore size 0.20 μm 0.22 μm 
Thickness ∼125 μm ∼110 μm 
Figure 1

Batik wastewater for first and third wash.

Figure 1

Batik wastewater for first and third wash.

Figure 2

Ultrafiltration stirred cell unit.

Figure 2

Ultrafiltration stirred cell unit.

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