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Two samples of wastewater were used in this research. The first sample was secondary treated sewage wastewater obtained from the Indah Water Konsortium treatment plant in Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia. The other sample was diluted biodiesel wastewater, which was collected from a biodiesel plant located at Carey Island, Selangor, Malaysia. The characteristics of the used wastewater are shown in Tables 1 and 2. Flat sheet membrane type NF1 was used in this study, and its properties are listed in Table 3.

Table 1

Characteristics of secondary treated municipal wastewater

ParameterValue
Temperature (°C) 25.8 
pH 6.7 
Conductivity (μS/cm) 435 
Total dissolved solids (mg/L) 216 
Turbidity (NTU) 12 
COD (mg/L) 50 
ParameterValue
Temperature (°C) 25.8 
pH 6.7 
Conductivity (μS/cm) 435 
Total dissolved solids (mg/L) 216 
Turbidity (NTU) 12 
COD (mg/L) 50 
Table 2

Characteristics of biodiesel wastewater

ParameterValue
Temperature (°C) 25.4 
pH 4.46 
Conductivity (μS/cm) 23.5 
Total dissolved solids (mg/L) 11.6 
Turbidity (NTU) 12 
COD (mg/L) 526 
ParameterValue
Temperature (°C) 25.4 
pH 4.46 
Conductivity (μS/cm) 23.5 
Total dissolved solids (mg/L) 11.6 
Turbidity (NTU) 12 
COD (mg/L) 526 
Table 3

NF1 membrane properties

MembraneApplied pressure (psi)Solute concentration (mg/L)SoluteWater flux at 25 °C (gfd)Rejection (%)
NF1 150 2,000 MgSO4 65 98 
MembraneApplied pressure (psi)Solute concentration (mg/L)SoluteWater flux at 25 °C (gfd)Rejection (%)
NF1 150 2,000 MgSO4 65 98 

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