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Calibration of the ASM3 model was performed using steady state data on treatment plant operation. Calibration of the model was adjusted in two steps, calibrating the TSS followed by the COD. The TSS calibration depended mainly on the accuracy of the wastewater characterization, because the model calculates the suspended solids using the ratio of soluble, particulate COD to total COD. Then, the TSS removal efficiency in the final sedimentation tanks was adjusted to 99.8%, as this determines the amount of suspended solids in the returned sludge. The second step is to calibrate the COD by adjusting the ASM3 kinetic and stoichiometric parameters. The model was calibrated adjusting only three parameters: maximum heterotrophic growth rate, heterotrophic aerobic decay rate, and aerobic heterotrophic yield. Table 5 shows the calibrated parameters and their default values for the ASM3. The parameters were compared to the available parameters in the literature (Table 5). The rest of the parameters showed a negligible effect on the outcome of the model, therefore, the default ASM3 values were set for them. The calibrated value for heterotrophic aerobic decay rate (bH, O2 = 0.18 d−1) was not far from the default value and the values stated in the literature. Meanwhile, the calibrated values for maximum heterotrophic growth rate (μH = 8 d−1) and aerobic heterotrophic yield (YH,O2 = 0.4 (gCOD/gCOD)) were far from the default values (Table 5). However, the stated values in the literature for maximum heterotrophic growth rate and aerobic heterotrophic yield are extensive and depend on the conditions of each research. ASM-family kinetic parameters and their default values are originally developed and applied for municipal wastewater at a cold and moderate temperatures range between 10 and 25 °C (Henze et al. 2000). However, the results from this research and many other studies (Table 5) suggest that default values especially for maximum heterotrophic growth rate and aerobic heterotrophic yield can fall in an extensive range. The use of default values for the heterotrophic growth rate and aerobic heterotrophic yield suggested by wastewater processes programs can lead to inaccurate designs. Therefore, default values for the heterotrophic growth rate and aerobic heterotrophic yield have to be categorized and recommended for wastewater modelling based on the conditions of the wastewater process studied.

Table 5

Calibrated ASM3 kinetic and stoichiometric parameters

ParameterμHbH,O2YH,O2
Max. growth rate of heterotrophic biomassAerobic endogenous respiration of heterotrophic biomassAerobic yield of heterotrophic biomass
This study 8 0.18 0.4 
Default value 0.2 0.63 
Koch (2000)  0.3 0.8 
Ni et al. (2008)  0.58 0.016 0.68 
Liwarska-Bizukojc et al. (2008)  7.5–21.4 0.22–0.28 0.44–0.79 
Henze et al. (1987)  3–6 0.2–0.62 0.67 
Solfrank & Gujer (1991)  1.5 0.24 0.64 
Kappeler & Gujer (1992)  1–8   
Henze et al. (1995)  3–6 0.2–0.4 0.63 
Bjerre (1997)  6.8  0.55 
Hvited-Jacobsen et al. (1998)  3.25  0.55 
Almeida & Butler (2002)  6.3 – 0.57 
Sin & Vanrolleghem (2007)  –  
Karahan et al. (2008)  0.1 0.68 
Trojanowicz et al. (2009)  6.1 0.18 0.58 
ParameterμHbH,O2YH,O2
Max. growth rate of heterotrophic biomassAerobic endogenous respiration of heterotrophic biomassAerobic yield of heterotrophic biomass
This study 8 0.18 0.4 
Default value 0.2 0.63 
Koch (2000)  0.3 0.8 
Ni et al. (2008)  0.58 0.016 0.68 
Liwarska-Bizukojc et al. (2008)  7.5–21.4 0.22–0.28 0.44–0.79 
Henze et al. (1987)  3–6 0.2–0.62 0.67 
Solfrank & Gujer (1991)  1.5 0.24 0.64 
Kappeler & Gujer (1992)  1–8   
Henze et al. (1995)  3–6 0.2–0.4 0.63 
Bjerre (1997)  6.8  0.55 
Hvited-Jacobsen et al. (1998)  3.25  0.55 
Almeida & Butler (2002)  6.3 – 0.57 
Sin & Vanrolleghem (2007)  –  
Karahan et al. (2008)  0.1 0.68 
Trojanowicz et al. (2009)  6.1 0.18 0.58 

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