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Even though the condensate obtained after 80% of the urine was evaporated displayed the optimal quality, additional treatment is still required if water reuse or recycling is to be achieved. A polishing treatment in the form of filtration was therefore applied. Table 1 shows the water quality of the raw condensate and the quality of the final product after sequential filtration by soil, sand and finally zeolite (clinoptilolite). Complete removal of N-NH3 and 91% removal of COD could be achieved through this process, which is in accordance with the literature where up to 97% of the ammonium in stored urine could be transferred onto clinoptilolite through ion exchange (Beler-Baykal et al. 2011). It should be noted here that, once the filtration materials (soil, sand and zeolite) have adsorbed the nitrogen from urine, they could potentially be used as a soil conditioner. The application of the condensate on the soil would indeed be expected to raise the soil pH and increase its value as a fertilizer. However, the impact of such fertilization would require further investigation, with respect to crop production and pollution.

Table 1

Water quality of the condensate throughout the sequential filtration treatment

  Sequential filtration treatment
ParametersRaw condensateSoilSandZeolite
COD (mg/L) 220 90 60 20 
N-NH3 (mg/L) 1,160 10 bdl 
pH 11 
  Sequential filtration treatment
ParametersRaw condensateSoilSandZeolite
COD (mg/L) 220 90 60 20 
N-NH3 (mg/L) 1,160 10 bdl 
pH 11 

bdl = below detection limit.

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