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Table 1

Log removals for enteric pathogens and indicator organisms

Indicative log reductionsa
TreatmentEscherichia coliEnteric bacteria (e.g., Campylobacter)Enteric virusesPhageGiardiaCryptosporidiumClostridium perfringensHelminths
Secondary Treatment 1.0–3.0 1.0–3.0 0.5–2.0 0.5–2.5 0.5–1.5 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 0–2.0 
Dual Media Filtrationb 0–1.0 0–1.0 0.5–3.0 1.0–4.0 1.0–3.0 1.5–2.5 0–1.0 2.0–3.0 
MF 3.5– > 6.0 3.5– > 6.0 0.5– > 6.0 3– > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 
UF, NF, RO > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 
Reservoir Storage 1.0–5.0 1.0–5.0 1.0–4.0 1.0–4.0 3.0–4.0 1.0–3.5 N/A 1.5– > 3.0 
Ozone 2.0–6.0 2.0–6.0 3.0–6.0 2.0–6.0 2.0–4.0 1.0–2.0 0–0.5 N/A 
Low UV 2.0– > 4.0 2.0– > 4.0 1.0– > 3.0 3.0–6.0 > 3.0 > 3.0 N/A N/A 
High UV >6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 N/A N/A 
AOP > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 N/A N/A 
Chlorination 2.0–6.0 2.0–6.0 1.0–3.0 0–2.5 0.5–1.5 0–0.5 1.0–2.0 0–1.0 
Indicative log reductionsa
TreatmentEscherichia coliEnteric bacteria (e.g., Campylobacter)Enteric virusesPhageGiardiaCryptosporidiumClostridium perfringensHelminths
Secondary Treatment 1.0–3.0 1.0–3.0 0.5–2.0 0.5–2.5 0.5–1.5 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 0–2.0 
Dual Media Filtrationb 0–1.0 0–1.0 0.5–3.0 1.0–4.0 1.0–3.0 1.5–2.5 0–1.0 2.0–3.0 
MF 3.5– > 6.0 3.5– > 6.0 0.5– > 6.0 3– > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 
UF, NF, RO > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 
Reservoir Storage 1.0–5.0 1.0–5.0 1.0–4.0 1.0–4.0 3.0–4.0 1.0–3.5 N/A 1.5– > 3.0 
Ozone 2.0–6.0 2.0–6.0 3.0–6.0 2.0–6.0 2.0–4.0 1.0–2.0 0–0.5 N/A 
Low UV 2.0– > 4.0 2.0– > 4.0 1.0– > 3.0 3.0–6.0 > 3.0 > 3.0 N/A N/A 
High UV >6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 N/A N/A 
AOP > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 > 6.0 N/A N/A 
Chlorination 2.0–6.0 2.0–6.0 1.0–3.0 0–2.5 0.5–1.5 0–0.5 1.0–2.0 0–1.0 

N/A = not available.

aReductions depend on specific features of the process, including detention times, pore size, filter depths and disinfectant.

bIncluding coagulation.

Source: Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council, Environment Protection and Heritage Council, National Health and Medical Research Council (NRMMC/EPHC/NHMRC 2008).

NF = Nanofiltration, AOP = Advanced Oxidation Process.

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