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Table 1

Comparison of the resources water and energy

WaterEnergy
Access Worldwide, about 0.8 billion people have no access to clean drinking water; about 2.5 billion people have no access to sanitary facilities. One of the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals, passed in 2000, is to halve the number of people without access to safe drinking water and basic sanitary facilities (reference year 1990; UN 2012) About 1.5 billion people in developing countries lack access to electricity and about 3 billion people rely on solid fuels for cooking (UNDP 2009). In emerging and developing economies, in particular, there is a growing demand for energy (electricity, heat, cooling), primarily in the area of mobility. The results are negative environmental impacts, for example, smog 
Population growth and increasing living standards The UN (2013) estimates that the population will reach 10.9 billion in 2100. Population growth and increasing living standards imply higher water and energy consumption in private households, industry and food production 
Urbanization/regional availability With increasing urbanization, the distances between the place of origin and the place of consumption of water and energy (electricity) grow, involving the construction/operation of short-distance respectively long-distance networks/pipelines 
Food/biomass production Due to population growth, there is an increasing demand for food and thus an increasing water demand in agriculture. At the same time, meat consumption increases, thus further increasing the water demand (Hoekstra & Chapagain 2008) There is a growing competition between the production of food and the production of biomass for energy generation (biogas biofuel). Biomass production also requires water (Gerbens-Leenes et al. 2009) 
Climate change There are regions confronted with increasing droughts. At the same time, the number of floods increases. Both phenomena have an impact on the availability of water and thus on the water stress index (Jiménez & Asano 2008) The consumption of fossil energy resources causes the increase of anthropogenic GHG emissions, resulting in worldwide climate changes. At the same time, nuclear energy is controversially discussed (permanent nuclear waste storage, hazardous incidents, as in Japan 2011) 
Quality/finiteness/storage Via the global water cycle, water is virtually infinite. Freshwater in utilizable quality, however, is often scarce where it is needed. Transport and water treatment require energy. Often, local storage is feasible to a very limited extent Useable electric energy has no natural source. Fossil energy sources are limited; their use leads to an increase in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Presently, the degree of alternative energy utilization (solar, wind, water, use of energy contained in wastewater) is insufficient. Large-scale storage of electricity is not yet economic 
WaterEnergy
Access Worldwide, about 0.8 billion people have no access to clean drinking water; about 2.5 billion people have no access to sanitary facilities. One of the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals, passed in 2000, is to halve the number of people without access to safe drinking water and basic sanitary facilities (reference year 1990; UN 2012) About 1.5 billion people in developing countries lack access to electricity and about 3 billion people rely on solid fuels for cooking (UNDP 2009). In emerging and developing economies, in particular, there is a growing demand for energy (electricity, heat, cooling), primarily in the area of mobility. The results are negative environmental impacts, for example, smog 
Population growth and increasing living standards The UN (2013) estimates that the population will reach 10.9 billion in 2100. Population growth and increasing living standards imply higher water and energy consumption in private households, industry and food production 
Urbanization/regional availability With increasing urbanization, the distances between the place of origin and the place of consumption of water and energy (electricity) grow, involving the construction/operation of short-distance respectively long-distance networks/pipelines 
Food/biomass production Due to population growth, there is an increasing demand for food and thus an increasing water demand in agriculture. At the same time, meat consumption increases, thus further increasing the water demand (Hoekstra & Chapagain 2008) There is a growing competition between the production of food and the production of biomass for energy generation (biogas biofuel). Biomass production also requires water (Gerbens-Leenes et al. 2009) 
Climate change There are regions confronted with increasing droughts. At the same time, the number of floods increases. Both phenomena have an impact on the availability of water and thus on the water stress index (Jiménez & Asano 2008) The consumption of fossil energy resources causes the increase of anthropogenic GHG emissions, resulting in worldwide climate changes. At the same time, nuclear energy is controversially discussed (permanent nuclear waste storage, hazardous incidents, as in Japan 2011) 
Quality/finiteness/storage Via the global water cycle, water is virtually infinite. Freshwater in utilizable quality, however, is often scarce where it is needed. Transport and water treatment require energy. Often, local storage is feasible to a very limited extent Useable electric energy has no natural source. Fossil energy sources are limited; their use leads to an increase in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Presently, the degree of alternative energy utilization (solar, wind, water, use of energy contained in wastewater) is insufficient. Large-scale storage of electricity is not yet economic 
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