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Table 3

Consumption of electricity and influencing factors for urban water management

Water qualityPrimary energy driversElectricity consumption kWh/m3
Extraction, conveyance and treatment Groundwater (incl. distribution) Pumping 0.37–1.30a 0.5b 0.27–0.45c ≈0.5 
Surface water Pumping 0.5–4.0d  
Brackish water Reverse osmosis 4e 1.2–1.5f 1.5–2.5g ≈1.5 
Seawater Reverse osmosis 4.0–8.0d 3.24f 5–10g 3.5–4.0h 2.5–4.0 (average 3.1)i ≈3.5 
Wastewater collection, treatment, discharge Wastewater Aeration 0.5–1.0j 0.43–1.12h ≈0.75 
Water qualityPrimary energy driversElectricity consumption kWh/m3
Extraction, conveyance and treatment Groundwater (incl. distribution) Pumping 0.37–1.30a 0.5b 0.27–0.45c ≈0.5 
Surface water Pumping 0.5–4.0d  
Brackish water Reverse osmosis 4e 1.2–1.5f 1.5–2.5g ≈1.5 
Seawater Reverse osmosis 4.0–8.0d 3.24f 5–10g 3.5–4.0h 2.5–4.0 (average 3.1)i ≈3.5 
Wastewater collection, treatment, discharge Wastewater Aeration 0.5–1.0j 0.43–1.12h ≈0.75 

aHessenenergie (1999), groundwater extraction (deep well) and distribution, ΔH 50–150 m.

bRödl (2007), water collection, treatment and distribution, benchmark of 98 water distribution companies in Bavaria, approximately 70% collection and treatment and approximately 30% distribution.

cRödl (2006), water collection, treatment and distribution, benchmark of 75 water distribution companies in Baden-Württemberg, approximately 70% collection and treatment and approximately 30% distribution.

dOlsson (2012).

eGleick (1994).

fGEI (2010).

gAsano (2007), brackish water: 1,000–2,500 mg/L TDS (total dissolved solids).

hKenway et al. (2008).

iVoutchkov (2012).

jDWA (2013), on average 33–50 kWh/(C·a) depending on the size of the WWTP, assuming the wastewater amount to be treated at approximately 150 L/(C·d).

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