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Table 4

Energy consumption and influencing factors of water reuse

Raw waterTreatmentaIntended useEnergy consumption kWh/m3
Raw wastewater Floc/Filt/UV Irrigation 0.32b 
Raw wastewater UASB/RBC/UV Irrigation 0.8c 
Effluent WWTP Floc/Filt/UF/UV/Cl Non-potable reuse 0.4d 
Raw wastewater CAS/Floc/MF/RO/UV Indirect potable reuse, industrial purpose, etc. 1.96b 
Effluent WWTP Floc/MF/RO/UV 1.45b 
Effluent WWTP Floc/UF/RO/UV/Cl (Indirect) potable water 1.2d 
Effluent WWTP OZ/Floc/DAF/Filt/OZ/AK/UF/Cl Potable water 1.34e 
Raw waterTreatmentaIntended useEnergy consumption kWh/m3
Raw wastewater Floc/Filt/UV Irrigation 0.32b 
Raw wastewater UASB/RBC/UV Irrigation 0.8c 
Effluent WWTP Floc/Filt/UF/UV/Cl Non-potable reuse 0.4d 
Raw wastewater CAS/Floc/MF/RO/UV Indirect potable reuse, industrial purpose, etc. 1.96b 
Effluent WWTP Floc/MF/RO/UV 1.45b 
Effluent WWTP Floc/UF/RO/UV/Cl (Indirect) potable water 1.2d 
Effluent WWTP OZ/Floc/DAF/Filt/OZ/AK/UF/Cl Potable water 1.34e 

aCAS: conventional activated sludge process; Floc: precipitation/flocculation; DAF: dissolved air flotation; Filt: filtration; MF: microfiltration; UF: ultrafiltration; RO: reverse osmosis; OZ: ozonization; AK: activated carbon (filter); Cl: disinfection via chlorination; UV: disinfection via UV.

bYüce et al. (2012).

cMüller (2013); Müller K., personal communication, 2014.

dATSE (2013).

eLahnsteiner & Lempert (2007); Lahnsteiner J., personal communication, 2009.

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