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Table 1

Five hybrid treatment trains and double-membrane scheme selected for simplified LCA

Treatment trainDisinfectionFiltrationInfiltrationMin. aquifer storagePathogen removal
#1 Ozone  Infiltr. pond 5 days >5 log 
#2 UF UF Injection 5 days >5.5 log 
#3 Ozone SSF Injection 5 days >5 log 
#4 UF UF Infiltr. pond 5 days >7 log 
#5 UV  Infiltr. pond 5 days >6 log 
#6 UF UF + NF None No storage >6 log 
Treatment trainDisinfectionFiltrationInfiltrationMin. aquifer storagePathogen removal
#1 Ozone  Infiltr. pond 5 days >5 log 
#2 UF UF Injection 5 days >5.5 log 
#3 Ozone SSF Injection 5 days >5 log 
#4 UF UF Infiltr. pond 5 days >7 log 
#5 UV  Infiltr. pond 5 days >6 log 
#6 UF UF + NF None No storage >6 log 

UF, Ultrafiltration; SSF, Slow sand filtration; NF, Nanofiltration.

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