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Table 2

Main design parameters of the treatment steps for the simplified LCA

Treatment step unitLife-timeFlowNumber of unitsEnergy (kWh/m³)Other
Ozonation unit 15 years 6,250 m³/d (100% flow recov.) 1 O3 generator 0.19 O3 dose: 0.6 mg/mg of DOC 
Ultraviolet lamps 3 years 49 UV lamps 0.05 UV dose: 1,000 J/m² (fluence appr. 350–450 J/m²) 
UF membrane units 7 years 57 m³/d/module (90% flow recov.) 217 modules 0.17 Coagulant used: FeCl3 Cleaning agents: NaOH, H2SO4, NaOCl, HCl, Citric acid, Tenside 
NF membrane units 7 years 13 m³/d/module (90% flow recov.) 391 modules 0.65 
Slow sand filters 20 years 2.4 m/d infiltration rate 4 SSF (+1 backup) – Filter thickness: 1 m, tot. surface 2,600 m² Cleaning frequency: 12 a−1 
Infiltration ponds 30 years 0.43–0.86 m/d infiltration rate 4 IP (+2 for rotations) – Sand layer: 0.30 m, tot. surface 1.3–2.8 ha Cleaning frequency: 2–6 a−1 
Injection wells 30 years (pump: 12 y) 1,265–1,563 m³/d 4 wells 0.02 Pump TDH: 4 m Well depth: 20 m Well diameter: 250 mm 
Recovery wells 0.11 Pump TDH: 25 m 
Treatment step unitLife-timeFlowNumber of unitsEnergy (kWh/m³)Other
Ozonation unit 15 years 6,250 m³/d (100% flow recov.) 1 O3 generator 0.19 O3 dose: 0.6 mg/mg of DOC 
Ultraviolet lamps 3 years 49 UV lamps 0.05 UV dose: 1,000 J/m² (fluence appr. 350–450 J/m²) 
UF membrane units 7 years 57 m³/d/module (90% flow recov.) 217 modules 0.17 Coagulant used: FeCl3 Cleaning agents: NaOH, H2SO4, NaOCl, HCl, Citric acid, Tenside 
NF membrane units 7 years 13 m³/d/module (90% flow recov.) 391 modules 0.65 
Slow sand filters 20 years 2.4 m/d infiltration rate 4 SSF (+1 backup) – Filter thickness: 1 m, tot. surface 2,600 m² Cleaning frequency: 12 a−1 
Infiltration ponds 30 years 0.43–0.86 m/d infiltration rate 4 IP (+2 for rotations) – Sand layer: 0.30 m, tot. surface 1.3–2.8 ha Cleaning frequency: 2–6 a−1 
Injection wells 30 years (pump: 12 y) 1,265–1,563 m³/d 4 wells 0.02 Pump TDH: 4 m Well depth: 20 m Well diameter: 250 mm 
Recovery wells 0.11 Pump TDH: 25 m 

DOC, Dissolved organic carbon; TDH, Total dynamic head.

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