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Table 1

Contamination by PFOS and PFOA in the water environment

No. ofPFOA (ng/L)PFOS (ng/L)
Water sourceCountry, RegionsamplesRangeMeanRangeMeanReference
Tap water China, Shenzhen nr nr nr nr–11 nr Mak et al. (2009)  
China, Shanghai nr 78 nr nr–7.6 nr Mak et al. (2009)  
China, Shenyang nr 2.6 nr nr–0.39 nr Mak et al. (2009)  
Japan, Morioka nr nr nr 0.1–0.5 nr Harada et al. (2003)  
Japan, Miyako nr nr nr nr 0.1 Harada et al. (2003)  
Japan, Kyoto nr nr nr 3.0–4.0 nr Harada et al. (2003)  
Japan, Setagaya nr nr nr 2.4–43.7 nr Harada et al. (2003)  
Japan, Kansai 15 4.9–42.2 15.3 0.3–12.7 3.8 Saito et al. (2004)  
Japan, Kanto 19 <5–25 <5 <5–37 6.4 Mitsuya et al. (2007)  
Japan, Tohoku 15 0.01–1.0 0.3 0.1–0.5 0.2 Saito et al. (2004)  
Italy, Northern 1.0–2.9 2.4 6.2–9.7 8.1 Loos et al. (2007)  
Spain, Catalonia nr 0.32–6.28 nr 0.39–0.87 nr Ericson et al. (2008)  
Surface water Austria, river water nr <1.1–19 nr <4.0–35 nr Clara et al. (2009)  
Australia, Sydney Harbour and surroundings 20 4.2–6.4 5.7 7.5–21 14 Thompson et al. (2011b)  
Brazil, South eastern nr 0.35–2.82 nr 0.58–6.70 nr Quinete et al. (2009)  
Brazil, Guanaba Bay nr 0.77–3.25 nr 0.40–1.32 nr Quinete et al. (2009)  
Canada, Lake Ontario nr 8.7 nr 13 Myers et al. (2012)  
China, Wuhan 69 <LOD–256 81 <LOD–88.9 51.8 Wang et al. (2013)  
China, Wuhan nr 2.8–5.6 nr 2.3–5.3 nr Jin et al. (2006)  
China, Dongguan nr 0.85–4.4 nr 0.90–99 nr So et al. (2007)  
China, Chongqing nr nd–35 nr nd–0.35 nr So et al. (2007)  
China, Yichang nr 4.1–4.9 nr 0.29–0.61 nr So et al. (2007)  
China, Nanjing nr 2.1–2.4 nr 0.33–0.38 nr So et al. (2007)  
China, Shanghai nr 22–260 nr 0.62–14 nr So et al. (2007)  
China, Guangzhou nr 0.85–13 nr 0.9–99 nr So et al. (2007)  
China, Pearl and Yangtze rivers nr 0.85–260 nr <0.01–99 nr So et al. (2007)  
China, Hun river nr <0.1–1.6 nr 0.2–44.6 nr Jin et al. (2009)  
China, Yangtze river nr 0.2–297.5 nr 0.2–25.5 nr Jin et al. (2009)  
China, Liao river nd–27.9 10.9 nd–6.6 0.33 Yang et al. (2011)  
China, Taihu lake 22 10.6–36.7 19.5 3.6–394 26.5 Yang et al. (2011)  
China, Pearl river 13 0.71–8.7 3.7 0.52–11 3.3 Zhang et al. (2013)  
China, Haihe river 4.4–42 15 2.0–7.6 3.7 Li et al. (2011)  
China, Jiangsu, Huai river basin nr nr 18 nr 4.7 Yu et al. (2013)  
China, Jiangsu, Taihu lake nr nr 56 nr 15 Yu et al. (2013)  
China, Bohai coastal region 17 0.96–4,534.41 nr nr nr Wang et al. (2014)  
China, Lake Taihu nr nr 136 nr 29.2 Pan et al. (2014)  
China, Liaoning nr nr–82 27 nr–31 4.7 Wang et al. (2012)  
China, Tainjin nr nr–12 6.8 nr–11 2.6 Wang et al. (2012)  
China, Shanxi nr nr–15 2.7 nr–5.7 0.93 Wang et al. (2012)  
China, Hohhot nr nr–1.8 1.2 nr–1.1 0.32 Wang et al. (2012)  
China, Guanting nr nr–2.3 1.2 nr–0.52 0.16 Wang et al. (2012)  
England, Cambridge nr nt nr nr–162 nr Atkinson et al. (2008)  
France, nr (surface water) 99 nr–7 nr–62 Boiteux et al. (2012)  
France, nr (ground water) 163 nr–12 nr–50 Boiteux et al. (2012)  
  France, Orge River nr 9.4 nr 17.4 nr Labadie & Chevreuil (2011)  
Germany, Rhine River 38 2–48 4.9 2–26 6.5 Skutlarek et al. (2006)  
Germany, Ruhr River 22 9–3,640 102 4–193 11.7 Skutlarek et al. (2006)  
Germany, Roter main river nr 3.2–3.4 nr 2.2–2.6 nr Weremiuk et al. (2006)  
Germany, Rhine river (upstream) 0.61–3.4 2.1 1.4–6.4 3.7 Möller et al. (2010)  
Germany, Rhine river (downstream) 2.3–4.1 3.1 3.0–7.3 4.1 Möller et al. (2010)  
Germany, River Ruhr 8.9–18 14.3 –0.89–10 4.2 Möller et al. (2010)  
Germany, River Elbe nr 2.8–9.6 nr 0.5–2.9 nr Ahrens et al. (2009)  
Germany, nr (surface water) 24 0.16–6.5 2.1 0.04–4.6 2.1 Llorca et al. (2012)  
Germany, nr (tap water) 0.16–1.9 1.3 0.04–0.4 0.4 Llorca et al. (2012)  
Hong Kong nr 0.73–5.5 nr 0.09–3.1 nr So et al. (2004)  
India, Ganges River nr <0.04–0.2 nr <0.04–1.81 nr Yeung et al. (2009)  
Italy, Po river nr 1–1,270 nr nd–25 nr Loos et al. (2007)  
Italy (Northern) 1.8–2.9 2.4 7.2–8.6 7.8 Loos et al. (2007)  
Japan, Arakawa River nr nr nr 2.8–51 nr Takazawa et al. (2009)  
Japan, Chubu 17 0.3–16.3 2.5 0.3–6.0 1.1 Saito et al. (2004)  
Japan, Chugoku 0.5–8.1 1.5 0.4–25.1 1.0 Saito et al. (2004)  
Japan, Kansai 2.1–456.4 21.2 0.8–37.3 5.7 Saito et al. (2004)  
Japan, Kyushu 0.2–33 1.3 0.3–1.7 0.7 Saito et al. (2004)  
Japan, Kanto 14 0.3–15.1 2.8 0.3–31.4 3.7 Saito et al. (2004)  
Japan, Shikoku 1.4–13.8 0.2–14.9 1.1 Saito et al. (2004)  
Japan, River basins nr 7.9–110 nr 0.8–11 nr Senthikumar et al. (2007)  
Japan, nr nr 5.2–80 nr 0.26–3.2 nr Takagi et al. (2008)  
Japan, nr nr 20–92 nr 1.0–4.6 nr Takagi et al. (2008)  
Japan, nr nr nr nr 0.3–1.57 1.68 Saito et al. (2003)  
Japan, nr nr nr nr <2.5–21 nr Taniyasu et al. (2003)  
Japan, Tohoku 15 0.1–4.2 1.1 0.3–4.6 1.2 Saito et al. (2004)  
Japan, Tsurumi River Basin nr 13.4–15.9 nr 179.6–179.9 nr Zushi et al. (2008)  
Japan, Tama river nr nr nr 0.5–58 nr Takazawa et al. (2009)  
Japan, Tone River nr nr nr 0.9–20 nr Takazawa et al. (2009)  
Japan, Yodo river nr 3.8–311 nr 1.6–104 nr Takagi et al. (2007)  
Japan, Yodo river 18 4.2–901 23.8 0.–49 2.4 Lien et al. (2008)  
Japan, Yodo river 30 7.4–1,044 29.4 0.4–56 3.8 Lien et al. (2008)  
Japan, Yodo river 33 6 = 2,568 36.6 0.8–123 5.6 Lien et al. (2008)  
Japan, Tokyo (groundwater) 53 <0.25–1,800 8.5 <0.25–990 5.7 Kuroda et al. (2014)  
Japan, Tokyo (tap water) 4.7–12 6.1 1.7–11 4.5 Kuroda et al. (2014)  
Japan, nr 18 0.76–192 35 <0.1–143 0.97 Murakami et al. (2008)  
  Japan, Northern basin of Lake Biwa nr 7.0–10 nr 0.8–16 nr Tsuda et al. (2010)  
Japan, Southern basin of Lake Biwa nr 8.3–13 nr 0.9–1.7 nr Tsuda et al. (2010)  
Japan, Akanoi Bay nr 9.1–17 nr 1.4–2.8 nr Tsuda et al. (2010)  
Singapore nr 5.7–9.15 nr 2.2–87.3 nr Hu et al. (2011)  
Switzerland, Glatt river nr 7.0–7.6 nr 43–60 nr Huset et al. (2008)  
Spain, Ebro River, Catalonia nr 1.45–1.90 nr 1.59–2.47 nr Ericson et al. (2008)  
Spain, Coastal water, Catalonia nr <0.08–9.13 nr <0.03–9.56 nr Sanchez-Avila et al. (2010)  
Spain, nr (surface water) 24 0.16–68 13 0.04–2,709 264 Llorca et al. (2012)  
Spain, nr (tap water) 84 0.16–35 6.7 0.04–258 46 Llorca et al. (2012)  
South Korea, Western coast nr 2.95–68.6 nr 4.11–450 nr Naile et al. (2010)  
South Korea, Youngsan river (artificial lake) 4.1–7.1 5.2 1.7–7.1 4.4 Hong et al. (2013)  
South Korea, Youngsan river (Inland creek) 2.6–10 6.2 0.38–68 20 Hong et al. (2013)  
South Korea, Youngsan river (Estuarine area) 1.3–3.6 2.4 0.57–5.8 2.2 Hong et al. (2013)  
South Korea, Nakdong river (artificial lake) 11–12 11.4 6.5–12 9.2 Hong et al. (2013)  
South Korea, Nakdong river (Inland creek) 8.9–28 16 5.3–66 26 Hong et al. (2013)  
South Korea, Nakdong river (Estuarine area) 11–23 15 2.5–26 Hong et al. (2013)  
USA nr 27–50 nr 21–70 nr Boulanger et al. (2004)  
USA, New York 51 15–49 nr 1.6–756 nr Sinclair et al. (2006)  
USA, New York (lake water) 11 nr–9.3 nr 3.27–15.8 nr Kim & Kannan (2007)  
USA, New York (rain water) 11 nr–1.51 nr nr–7.27 nr Kim & Kannan (2007)  
USA, Tennessee 40 140–498 366 16.8–144 55.1 Hansen et al. (2002)  
USA, Lake Ontario nr 18–34 nr 2.9–30 nr Sinclair et al. (2006)  
WWTP Austria nr 2–73 15.1 1–66 13.3 Clara et al. (2009)  
Canada, Lake Ontario nr 6.5–54.7 nr 8.6–208–5 nr Völkel et al. (2008)  
China, Shanghai 16 2–91 nr 1–32 nr Zhang et al. 2013a) 
China, Shenyang nr 18.4–41.1 nr 1.69–3.85 nr Sun et al. (2011)  
Europe, different countries 90 1–15,900 255 0.5–2,101 62.5 Loos et al. (2013)  
Germany nr 12.3–77.6 nr 0.4–82.2 nr Ahrens et al. (2009)  
Germany, nr 0.04–1.8 1.8 nr nr Llorca et al. (2012)  
Japan, nr 10–68 61 42–635 87 Murakami et al. (2008)  
Japan, nr 14–41 23 14–336 28 Murakami et al. (2009)  
Singapore nr 11.2–1,057 nr 5.3–560.9 nr Yu et al. (2009a)  
Singapore nr 7.9–1,060 nr 5.8–35.3 nr Hu et al. (2011)  
Spain, Catalonia nr 3.47–61.9 nr <0.03–72.1 nr Sanchez-Avila et al. (2010)  
Spain, nr 0.04–17 17 0.22–501 214 Llorca et al. (2012)  
Switzerland nr nr 12 nr 57 Huset et al. (2008)  
USA nr nr 11 nr 42 Sinclair & Kannan (2006)  
USA, Kentucky and Georgia, nr 1–334 nr 1.8–149 nr Loganathan et al. (2007)  
No. ofPFOA (ng/L)PFOS (ng/L)
Water sourceCountry, RegionsamplesRangeMeanRangeMeanReference
Tap water China, Shenzhen nr nr nr nr–11 nr Mak et al. (2009)  
China, Shanghai nr 78 nr nr–7.6 nr Mak et al. (2009)  
China, Shenyang nr 2.6 nr nr–0.39 nr Mak et al. (2009)  
Japan, Morioka nr nr nr 0.1–0.5 nr Harada et al. (2003)  
Japan, Miyako nr nr nr nr 0.1 Harada et al. (2003)  
Japan, Kyoto nr nr nr 3.0–4.0 nr Harada et al. (2003)  
Japan, Setagaya nr nr nr 2.4–43.7 nr Harada et al. (2003)  
Japan, Kansai 15 4.9–42.2 15.3 0.3–12.7 3.8 Saito et al. (2004)  
Japan, Kanto 19 <5–25 <5 <5–37 6.4 Mitsuya et al. (2007)  
Japan, Tohoku 15 0.01–1.0 0.3 0.1–0.5 0.2 Saito et al. (2004)  
Italy, Northern 1.0–2.9 2.4 6.2–9.7 8.1 Loos et al. (2007)  
Spain, Catalonia nr 0.32–6.28 nr 0.39–0.87 nr Ericson et al. (2008)  
Surface water Austria, river water nr <1.1–19 nr <4.0–35 nr Clara et al. (2009)  
Australia, Sydney Harbour and surroundings 20 4.2–6.4 5.7 7.5–21 14 Thompson et al. (2011b)  
Brazil, South eastern nr 0.35–2.82 nr 0.58–6.70 nr Quinete et al. (2009)  
Brazil, Guanaba Bay nr 0.77–3.25 nr 0.40–1.32 nr Quinete et al. (2009)  
Canada, Lake Ontario nr 8.7 nr 13 Myers et al. (2012)  
China, Wuhan 69 <LOD–256 81 <LOD–88.9 51.8 Wang et al. (2013)  
China, Wuhan nr 2.8–5.6 nr 2.3–5.3 nr Jin et al. (2006)  
China, Dongguan nr 0.85–4.4 nr 0.90–99 nr So et al. (2007)  
China, Chongqing nr nd–35 nr nd–0.35 nr So et al. (2007)  
China, Yichang nr 4.1–4.9 nr 0.29–0.61 nr So et al. (2007)  
China, Nanjing nr 2.1–2.4 nr 0.33–0.38 nr So et al. (2007)  
China, Shanghai nr 22–260 nr 0.62–14 nr So et al. (2007)  
China, Guangzhou nr 0.85–13 nr 0.9–99 nr So et al. (2007)  
China, Pearl and Yangtze rivers nr 0.85–260 nr <0.01–99 nr So et al. (2007)  
China, Hun river nr <0.1–1.6 nr 0.2–44.6 nr Jin et al. (2009)  
China, Yangtze river nr 0.2–297.5 nr 0.2–25.5 nr Jin et al. (2009)  
China, Liao river nd–27.9 10.9 nd–6.6 0.33 Yang et al. (2011)  
China, Taihu lake 22 10.6–36.7 19.5 3.6–394 26.5 Yang et al. (2011)  
China, Pearl river 13 0.71–8.7 3.7 0.52–11 3.3 Zhang et al. (2013)  
China, Haihe river 4.4–42 15 2.0–7.6 3.7 Li et al. (2011)  
China, Jiangsu, Huai river basin nr nr 18 nr 4.7 Yu et al. (2013)  
China, Jiangsu, Taihu lake nr nr 56 nr 15 Yu et al. (2013)  
China, Bohai coastal region 17 0.96–4,534.41 nr nr nr Wang et al. (2014)  
China, Lake Taihu nr nr 136 nr 29.2 Pan et al. (2014)  
China, Liaoning nr nr–82 27 nr–31 4.7 Wang et al. (2012)  
China, Tainjin nr nr–12 6.8 nr–11 2.6 Wang et al. (2012)  
China, Shanxi nr nr–15 2.7 nr–5.7 0.93 Wang et al. (2012)  
China, Hohhot nr nr–1.8 1.2 nr–1.1 0.32 Wang et al. (2012)  
China, Guanting nr nr–2.3 1.2 nr–0.52 0.16 Wang et al. (2012)  
England, Cambridge nr nt nr nr–162 nr Atkinson et al. (2008)  
France, nr (surface water) 99 nr–7 nr–62 Boiteux et al. (2012)  
France, nr (ground water) 163 nr–12 nr–50 Boiteux et al. (2012)  
  France, Orge River nr 9.4 nr 17.4 nr Labadie & Chevreuil (2011)  
Germany, Rhine River 38 2–48 4.9 2–26 6.5 Skutlarek et al. (2006)  
Germany, Ruhr River 22 9–3,640 102 4–193 11.7 Skutlarek et al. (2006)  
Germany, Roter main river nr 3.2–3.4 nr 2.2–2.6 nr Weremiuk et al. (2006)  
Germany, Rhine river (upstream) 0.61–3.4 2.1 1.4–6.4 3.7 Möller et al. (2010)  
Germany, Rhine river (downstream) 2.3–4.1 3.1 3.0–7.3 4.1 Möller et al. (2010)  
Germany, River Ruhr 8.9–18 14.3 –0.89–10 4.2 Möller et al. (2010)  
Germany, River Elbe nr 2.8–9.6 nr 0.5–2.9 nr Ahrens et al. (2009)  
Germany, nr (surface water) 24 0.16–6.5 2.1 0.04–4.6 2.1 Llorca et al. (2012)  
Germany, nr (tap water) 0.16–1.9 1.3 0.04–0.4 0.4 Llorca et al. (2012)  
Hong Kong nr 0.73–5.5 nr 0.09–3.1 nr So et al. (2004)  
India, Ganges River nr <0.04–0.2 nr <0.04–1.81 nr Yeung et al. (2009)  
Italy, Po river nr 1–1,270 nr nd–25 nr Loos et al. (2007)  
Italy (Northern) 1.8–2.9 2.4 7.2–8.6 7.8 Loos et al. (2007)  
Japan, Arakawa River nr nr nr 2.8–51 nr Takazawa et al. (2009)  
Japan, Chubu 17 0.3–16.3 2.5 0.3–6.0 1.1 Saito et al. (2004)  
Japan, Chugoku 0.5–8.1 1.5 0.4–25.1 1.0 Saito et al. (2004)  
Japan, Kansai 2.1–456.4 21.2 0.8–37.3 5.7 Saito et al. (2004)  
Japan, Kyushu 0.2–33 1.3 0.3–1.7 0.7 Saito et al. (2004)  
Japan, Kanto 14 0.3–15.1 2.8 0.3–31.4 3.7 Saito et al. (2004)  
Japan, Shikoku 1.4–13.8 0.2–14.9 1.1 Saito et al. (2004)  
Japan, River basins nr 7.9–110 nr 0.8–11 nr Senthikumar et al. (2007)  
Japan, nr nr 5.2–80 nr 0.26–3.2 nr Takagi et al. (2008)  
Japan, nr nr 20–92 nr 1.0–4.6 nr Takagi et al. (2008)  
Japan, nr nr nr nr 0.3–1.57 1.68 Saito et al. (2003)  
Japan, nr nr nr nr <2.5–21 nr Taniyasu et al. (2003)  
Japan, Tohoku 15 0.1–4.2 1.1 0.3–4.6 1.2 Saito et al. (2004)  
Japan, Tsurumi River Basin nr 13.4–15.9 nr 179.6–179.9 nr Zushi et al. (2008)  
Japan, Tama river nr nr nr 0.5–58 nr Takazawa et al. (2009)  
Japan, Tone River nr nr nr 0.9–20 nr Takazawa et al. (2009)  
Japan, Yodo river nr 3.8–311 nr 1.6–104 nr Takagi et al. (2007)  
Japan, Yodo river 18 4.2–901 23.8 0.–49 2.4 Lien et al. (2008)  
Japan, Yodo river 30 7.4–1,044 29.4 0.4–56 3.8 Lien et al. (2008)  
Japan, Yodo river 33 6 = 2,568 36.6 0.8–123 5.6 Lien et al. (2008)  
Japan, Tokyo (groundwater) 53 <0.25–1,800 8.5 <0.25–990 5.7 Kuroda et al. (2014)  
Japan, Tokyo (tap water) 4.7–12 6.1 1.7–11 4.5 Kuroda et al. (2014)  
Japan, nr 18 0.76–192 35 <0.1–143 0.97 Murakami et al. (2008)  
  Japan, Northern basin of Lake Biwa nr 7.0–10 nr 0.8–16 nr Tsuda et al. (2010)  
Japan, Southern basin of Lake Biwa nr 8.3–13 nr 0.9–1.7 nr Tsuda et al. (2010)  
Japan, Akanoi Bay nr 9.1–17 nr 1.4–2.8 nr Tsuda et al. (2010)  
Singapore nr 5.7–9.15 nr 2.2–87.3 nr Hu et al. (2011)  
Switzerland, Glatt river nr 7.0–7.6 nr 43–60 nr Huset et al. (2008)  
Spain, Ebro River, Catalonia nr 1.45–1.90 nr 1.59–2.47 nr Ericson et al. (2008)  
Spain, Coastal water, Catalonia nr <0.08–9.13 nr <0.03–9.56 nr Sanchez-Avila et al. (2010)  
Spain, nr (surface water) 24 0.16–68 13 0.04–2,709 264 Llorca et al. (2012)  
Spain, nr (tap water) 84 0.16–35 6.7 0.04–258 46 Llorca et al. (2012)  
South Korea, Western coast nr 2.95–68.6 nr 4.11–450 nr Naile et al. (2010)  
South Korea, Youngsan river (artificial lake) 4.1–7.1 5.2 1.7–7.1 4.4 Hong et al. (2013)  
South Korea, Youngsan river (Inland creek) 2.6–10 6.2 0.38–68 20 Hong et al. (2013)  
South Korea, Youngsan river (Estuarine area) 1.3–3.6 2.4 0.57–5.8 2.2 Hong et al. (2013)  
South Korea, Nakdong river (artificial lake) 11–12 11.4 6.5–12 9.2 Hong et al. (2013)  
South Korea, Nakdong river (Inland creek) 8.9–28 16 5.3–66 26 Hong et al. (2013)  
South Korea, Nakdong river (Estuarine area) 11–23 15 2.5–26 Hong et al. (2013)  
USA nr 27–50 nr 21–70 nr Boulanger et al. (2004)  
USA, New York 51 15–49 nr 1.6–756 nr Sinclair et al. (2006)  
USA, New York (lake water) 11 nr–9.3 nr 3.27–15.8 nr Kim & Kannan (2007)  
USA, New York (rain water) 11 nr–1.51 nr nr–7.27 nr Kim & Kannan (2007)  
USA, Tennessee 40 140–498 366 16.8–144 55.1 Hansen et al. (2002)  
USA, Lake Ontario nr 18–34 nr 2.9–30 nr Sinclair et al. (2006)  
WWTP Austria nr 2–73 15.1 1–66 13.3 Clara et al. (2009)  
Canada, Lake Ontario nr 6.5–54.7 nr 8.6–208–5 nr Völkel et al. (2008)  
China, Shanghai 16 2–91 nr 1–32 nr Zhang et al. 2013a) 
China, Shenyang nr 18.4–41.1 nr 1.69–3.85 nr Sun et al. (2011)  
Europe, different countries 90 1–15,900 255 0.5–2,101 62.5 Loos et al. (2013)  
Germany nr 12.3–77.6 nr 0.4–82.2 nr Ahrens et al. (2009)  
Germany, nr 0.04–1.8 1.8 nr nr Llorca et al. (2012)  
Japan, nr 10–68 61 42–635 87 Murakami et al. (2008)  
Japan, nr 14–41 23 14–336 28 Murakami et al. (2009)  
Singapore nr 11.2–1,057 nr 5.3–560.9 nr Yu et al. (2009a)  
Singapore nr 7.9–1,060 nr 5.8–35.3 nr Hu et al. (2011)  
Spain, Catalonia nr 3.47–61.9 nr <0.03–72.1 nr Sanchez-Avila et al. (2010)  
Spain, nr 0.04–17 17 0.22–501 214 Llorca et al. (2012)  
Switzerland nr nr 12 nr 57 Huset et al. (2008)  
USA nr nr 11 nr 42 Sinclair & Kannan (2006)  
USA, Kentucky and Georgia, nr 1–334 nr 1.8–149 nr Loganathan et al. (2007)  

nd, not done; nr, not reported.

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