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Table 2

PFCs removal during water treatment processes

Treatment processesWater sourcePFOS reduction (%)PFOA reduction (%)References
GAC Synthetic wastewater nr nr Knepper & Lange (2012)  
GAC Wastewater 82–90 50–90 Lampert et al. (2007)  
GAC Simulated water <20 <20 Appleman et al. (2013)  
GAC Secondary effluent 97 95 Schröder et al. (2010)  
GAC Tap water 99.99 nr Senevirathna et al. (2010)  
GAC Aqueous solution nr nr Ochoa-Herrera & Sierra-Alvarez (2008)  
PAC Secondary effluent 22 16 Yu et al. (2012)  
PAC Synthetic industrial wastewater >97 >97 Rattanaoudom et al. (2012)  
PAC + microfiltration/ultrafiltration Synthetic wastewater nr nr Knepper & Lange (2012)  
PAC + coagulation Synthetic wastewater >90 >90 Bao et al. (2014)  
Carbon nanotubes Simulated water nr nr Chen et al. (2011)  
Carbon nanotubes Simulated water 95 95 Deng et al. (2012)  
Carbon nanotubes Aqueous solution nr nr Dai et al. (2013)  
Coagulation Drinking water <20 <20 Xiao et al. (2013)  
Coagulation Synthetic wastewater 32 12 Bao et al. (2014)  
Coagulation (polyaluminium chloride) Surface water nr nr Deng et al. (2011)  
Coagulation + DAF Secondary effluent 49 nr Appleman (2012)  
Membrane, Cl2 River water >22 44 Takagi et al. (2008)  
NF Simulated water >99 >97 Appleman et al. (2013)  
NF Wastewater 90–99 nr Tang et al. (2007)  
NF Wastewater 90–99 nr Tang et al. (2007)  
NF Simulated surface water 95 nr Zhao et al. (2013)  
RO Wastewater >99 nr Tang et al. (2007)  
RO Wastewater >90 nr Tang et al. (2006)  
RO Wastewater >99 nr Tang et al. (2007)  
RO Secondary effluent 86 90 Schröder et al. (2010)  
RO Synthetic wastewater 99 nr Knepper & Lange (2012)  
Ozonation under alkaline condition Secondary effluent 42 56 Lin et al. (2012)  
Ozonation Secondary effluent 32 18 Schröder et al. (2010)  
Ozonation + UV Secondary effluent 46 48 Schröder et al. (2010)  
Fenton Secondary effluent 68 70 Schröder et al. (2010)  
Fenton + UV Secondary effluent 68 75 Schröder et al. (2010)  
UV nr nr 61.7 Chen et al. (2007)  
UV nr nr nr Hori et al. (2004)  
Photo-degradation nr 8–68 nr Yamamoto et al. (2007)  
RBF River water nr nr Eschauzier et al. (2010)  
RBF Surface water nr nr Skutlarek et al. (2006)  
AIX Wastewater >99 >99 Lampert et al. (2007)  
Ultrafiltration, Cl2 Groundwater −164 Atkinson et al. (2008)  
Rapid sand filtration (RSF), O3, GAC, Cl2 River water −28 Takagi et al. (2008)  
RSF, GAC, Cl2 Lake water 97 90 Takagi et al. (2008)  
Cl2, coagulation/flocculation, RSF, O3, GAC Surface water 69 52 Flores et al. (2013)  
Cl2, coagulation/flocculation, RSF, O3, GAC, UF, RO Surface water 86 89 Flores et al. (2013)  
Coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation, SF, O3, GAC Cl2 River water −185 (summer), 60 (winter) −220 (summer), 0 (winter) Takagi et al. (2011)  
Coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation, SF, O3, GAC (reactivated), Cl2 Lake water >89 (summer), >88 (winter) 85 (summer), 78 (winter) Takagi et al. (2011)  
Zeolite Aqueous solution nr nr Ochoa-Herrera & Sierra-Alvarez (2008)  
Sludge Aqueous solution nr nr Ochoa-Herrera & Sierra-Alvarez (2008)  
Deep bed filtration (DBF), medium pressure UV, Cl2 Groundwater Quinones & Snyder (2009)  
O3, coagulation/flocculation, DBF, Cl2 Surface water Quinones & Snyder (2009)  
PAC, chloramination, DBF Surface water −12 Quinones & Snyder (2009)  
Cl2, coagulation/flocculation, DBF, UV Surface water Quinones & Snyder (2009)  
Treatment processesWater sourcePFOS reduction (%)PFOA reduction (%)References
GAC Synthetic wastewater nr nr Knepper & Lange (2012)  
GAC Wastewater 82–90 50–90 Lampert et al. (2007)  
GAC Simulated water <20 <20 Appleman et al. (2013)  
GAC Secondary effluent 97 95 Schröder et al. (2010)  
GAC Tap water 99.99 nr Senevirathna et al. (2010)  
GAC Aqueous solution nr nr Ochoa-Herrera & Sierra-Alvarez (2008)  
PAC Secondary effluent 22 16 Yu et al. (2012)  
PAC Synthetic industrial wastewater >97 >97 Rattanaoudom et al. (2012)  
PAC + microfiltration/ultrafiltration Synthetic wastewater nr nr Knepper & Lange (2012)  
PAC + coagulation Synthetic wastewater >90 >90 Bao et al. (2014)  
Carbon nanotubes Simulated water nr nr Chen et al. (2011)  
Carbon nanotubes Simulated water 95 95 Deng et al. (2012)  
Carbon nanotubes Aqueous solution nr nr Dai et al. (2013)  
Coagulation Drinking water <20 <20 Xiao et al. (2013)  
Coagulation Synthetic wastewater 32 12 Bao et al. (2014)  
Coagulation (polyaluminium chloride) Surface water nr nr Deng et al. (2011)  
Coagulation + DAF Secondary effluent 49 nr Appleman (2012)  
Membrane, Cl2 River water >22 44 Takagi et al. (2008)  
NF Simulated water >99 >97 Appleman et al. (2013)  
NF Wastewater 90–99 nr Tang et al. (2007)  
NF Wastewater 90–99 nr Tang et al. (2007)  
NF Simulated surface water 95 nr Zhao et al. (2013)  
RO Wastewater >99 nr Tang et al. (2007)  
RO Wastewater >90 nr Tang et al. (2006)  
RO Wastewater >99 nr Tang et al. (2007)  
RO Secondary effluent 86 90 Schröder et al. (2010)  
RO Synthetic wastewater 99 nr Knepper & Lange (2012)  
Ozonation under alkaline condition Secondary effluent 42 56 Lin et al. (2012)  
Ozonation Secondary effluent 32 18 Schröder et al. (2010)  
Ozonation + UV Secondary effluent 46 48 Schröder et al. (2010)  
Fenton Secondary effluent 68 70 Schröder et al. (2010)  
Fenton + UV Secondary effluent 68 75 Schröder et al. (2010)  
UV nr nr 61.7 Chen et al. (2007)  
UV nr nr nr Hori et al. (2004)  
Photo-degradation nr 8–68 nr Yamamoto et al. (2007)  
RBF River water nr nr Eschauzier et al. (2010)  
RBF Surface water nr nr Skutlarek et al. (2006)  
AIX Wastewater >99 >99 Lampert et al. (2007)  
Ultrafiltration, Cl2 Groundwater −164 Atkinson et al. (2008)  
Rapid sand filtration (RSF), O3, GAC, Cl2 River water −28 Takagi et al. (2008)  
RSF, GAC, Cl2 Lake water 97 90 Takagi et al. (2008)  
Cl2, coagulation/flocculation, RSF, O3, GAC Surface water 69 52 Flores et al. (2013)  
Cl2, coagulation/flocculation, RSF, O3, GAC, UF, RO Surface water 86 89 Flores et al. (2013)  
Coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation, SF, O3, GAC Cl2 River water −185 (summer), 60 (winter) −220 (summer), 0 (winter) Takagi et al. (2011)  
Coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation, SF, O3, GAC (reactivated), Cl2 Lake water >89 (summer), >88 (winter) 85 (summer), 78 (winter) Takagi et al. (2011)  
Zeolite Aqueous solution nr nr Ochoa-Herrera & Sierra-Alvarez (2008)  
Sludge Aqueous solution nr nr Ochoa-Herrera & Sierra-Alvarez (2008)  
Deep bed filtration (DBF), medium pressure UV, Cl2 Groundwater Quinones & Snyder (2009)  
O3, coagulation/flocculation, DBF, Cl2 Surface water Quinones & Snyder (2009)  
PAC, chloramination, DBF Surface water −12 Quinones & Snyder (2009)  
Cl2, coagulation/flocculation, DBF, UV Surface water Quinones & Snyder (2009)  
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