Skip to Main Content

Disasters in the United States, such as the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, Hurricane Katrina in 2005, and Superstorm Sandy in 2012, have elevated the need for critical infrastructure preparedness and resilience to national priority level. Administrative policies and directives have been issued to facilitate the implementation of measures designed to respond and mitigate the consequences of risks (HSPD-5 2003; PPD-8 2011; EO 13653 2013; PPD-21 2013; State, Local, and Tribal Leaders Task Force on Climate Preparedness and Resilience (Task Force) 2014). A number of agencies and organizations have contributed to this effort (Table 1). To date, resilience planning has been principally focused on improving preparedness and the restoration of critical services in communities following extreme events, such as hurricanes, earthquakes or terrorism, and less so on the slow-moving consequences of climate change.

Table 1

Resilience efforts

 OrganizationProductNameIntended AudiencePurposeYear ReleasedSource
All-Hazards Disaster Resilience AWWA Network WARN (Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network) Water Utilities A method of providing and receiving emergency aid. Varies by State AWWA (2016)  
AWWA Standard/Framework J-100 RAMCAP (Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection) for Risk and Resilience Management of Water and Wastewater Systems Water Utilities Analyzes and manages risks associated with terrorist attacks and natural hazards. 2010 AWWA (2010)  
 AWWA Manual of practice M36 Water Audits and Loss Control Programs, Third Edition Water Utilities Provides complete operational guidance and data on all aspects of leak detection, water audits, and water-loss control for city water utilities. 2009 AWWA (2009)  
 AWWA Report Superstorm Sandy After-Action Report Utilities/State and Federal Partners Outlines lessons learned and actions in relation to intense storms that can be taken to reduce consequences and increase resilience in the water sector in the future. 2013 AWWA (2013)  
 USEPA Workshop Synthesis Report Planning for an Emergency Drinking Water Supply Water Utilities Provides direction to water utilities to develop an emergency plan in case of an intentional disruption of water supply, or earthquakes, etc. 2011 USEPA (2011)  
 USEPA Tool TTX Tool (Tabletop Exercise Tool for Water Systems: Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Climate Resiliency) Water Utilities Improves utilities' approach to preparedness and response in emergencies. 2005 (Re-released 2010) USEPA (2015a, 2015b, 2015c, 2015d)  
 USEPA Tool CREAT (Climate Resilience Evaluation & Awareness Tool) Water Utilities Evaluates the risk of impacts from climate related threats. 2010 USEPA (2015a, 2015b, 2015c, 2015d)  
 FEMA Tool HAZUS (Hazards – United States) Emergency managers Assists in preparedness and response to hazards as well as mitigation and recovery processes. Estimates potential losses from disasters and hazards (earthquakes, hurricanes and floods). 2010 FEMA (2015)  
 NAS Brief Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative Communities (1) defines ‘national resilience’ and frames the main issues related to increasing resilience in the USA; (2) provides goals, baseline conditions, or performance metrics for national resilience; (3) describes the state of knowledge about resilience to hazards and disasters; and (4) outlines additional information, data, gaps, and/or obstacles that need to be addressed to increase the nation's resilience to disasters. 2012 National Academy of Sciences (2012)  
 TISP Guide Regional Disaster Resilience Organizations and communities Describes a step-by-step process to develop a cross-sector, multi-jurisdiction strategy, to improve capabilities to deal with major incidents or disasters. 2011 TISP (2011)  
Climate Resilience ACCO Workshop Synthesis Report Defense, National Security & Climate Change: Building Resilience and Identifying Opportunities Related to Water, Energy and Extreme Events Defense Summarizes a workshop analyzing the effects of climate change on defense operations and how to incorporate solutions in planning. 2012 ACCO (2012)  
 USEPA Initiative (with tools, resources and training) CRWU (Climate Ready Water Utilities) Water Sector Provides resources by promoting a clear understanding of climate science and adaptation options, and by promoting consideration of integrated water resources management (IWRM) planning in the water sector. 2009 USEPA (2013)  
 USEPA Document Adaptation Strategies Guide for Water Utilities Water Utilities and stakeholders Overview of what impacts from changes in the climate may have on utilities and common adaptation options being implemented. 2012 USEPA (2015a, 2015b, 2015c, 2015d) 
 OrganizationProductNameIntended AudiencePurposeYear ReleasedSource
All-Hazards Disaster Resilience AWWA Network WARN (Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network) Water Utilities A method of providing and receiving emergency aid. Varies by State AWWA (2016)  
AWWA Standard/Framework J-100 RAMCAP (Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection) for Risk and Resilience Management of Water and Wastewater Systems Water Utilities Analyzes and manages risks associated with terrorist attacks and natural hazards. 2010 AWWA (2010)  
 AWWA Manual of practice M36 Water Audits and Loss Control Programs, Third Edition Water Utilities Provides complete operational guidance and data on all aspects of leak detection, water audits, and water-loss control for city water utilities. 2009 AWWA (2009)  
 AWWA Report Superstorm Sandy After-Action Report Utilities/State and Federal Partners Outlines lessons learned and actions in relation to intense storms that can be taken to reduce consequences and increase resilience in the water sector in the future. 2013 AWWA (2013)  
 USEPA Workshop Synthesis Report Planning for an Emergency Drinking Water Supply Water Utilities Provides direction to water utilities to develop an emergency plan in case of an intentional disruption of water supply, or earthquakes, etc. 2011 USEPA (2011)  
 USEPA Tool TTX Tool (Tabletop Exercise Tool for Water Systems: Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Climate Resiliency) Water Utilities Improves utilities' approach to preparedness and response in emergencies. 2005 (Re-released 2010) USEPA (2015a, 2015b, 2015c, 2015d)  
 USEPA Tool CREAT (Climate Resilience Evaluation & Awareness Tool) Water Utilities Evaluates the risk of impacts from climate related threats. 2010 USEPA (2015a, 2015b, 2015c, 2015d)  
 FEMA Tool HAZUS (Hazards – United States) Emergency managers Assists in preparedness and response to hazards as well as mitigation and recovery processes. Estimates potential losses from disasters and hazards (earthquakes, hurricanes and floods). 2010 FEMA (2015)  
 NAS Brief Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative Communities (1) defines ‘national resilience’ and frames the main issues related to increasing resilience in the USA; (2) provides goals, baseline conditions, or performance metrics for national resilience; (3) describes the state of knowledge about resilience to hazards and disasters; and (4) outlines additional information, data, gaps, and/or obstacles that need to be addressed to increase the nation's resilience to disasters. 2012 National Academy of Sciences (2012)  
 TISP Guide Regional Disaster Resilience Organizations and communities Describes a step-by-step process to develop a cross-sector, multi-jurisdiction strategy, to improve capabilities to deal with major incidents or disasters. 2011 TISP (2011)  
Climate Resilience ACCO Workshop Synthesis Report Defense, National Security & Climate Change: Building Resilience and Identifying Opportunities Related to Water, Energy and Extreme Events Defense Summarizes a workshop analyzing the effects of climate change on defense operations and how to incorporate solutions in planning. 2012 ACCO (2012)  
 USEPA Initiative (with tools, resources and training) CRWU (Climate Ready Water Utilities) Water Sector Provides resources by promoting a clear understanding of climate science and adaptation options, and by promoting consideration of integrated water resources management (IWRM) planning in the water sector. 2009 USEPA (2013)  
 USEPA Document Adaptation Strategies Guide for Water Utilities Water Utilities and stakeholders Overview of what impacts from changes in the climate may have on utilities and common adaptation options being implemented. 2012 USEPA (2015a, 2015b, 2015c, 2015d) 

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal