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Maize was seeded on 03/08/2012 and harvested on 15/11/2012. The temperature varied from 26.9 °C to 33.7 °C. Pots were irrigated to maintain moisture at 40–60% of field capacity. Plant height, girth circle at the lower end, number of leaves, and leaf area were recorded at the flowering stage. Harvested maize grains, cobs, and other shoot and root biomasses were dried under direct sun for about 7 days and weighed. Total-N, ammonium-N, nitrate-N, total-P, and total-K were analyzed from crops and maize grains. The total-N, ammonium-N, nitrate-N, total-P, P2O5, total-K, K2O and pH, OM and organic carbon (OC) of growth media were analyzed before and after harvesting (Table 3).

Table 3

Chemical properties counted for dry weight of Ferric Lixisol and Cambisol growth media before cultivation and after maize harvesting

  After maize harvesting
Before cultivationControl (no fertilization)IN-FECO-FI-DFS-IREC-DFS-IR/PGEC-SDFS-PG
Ferric Lixisol 
 Total-N (g/kg) 1 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.1a 1 ± 0.1bc 0.9ab 1.1 ± 0.1bc 1.1c 1.1 ± 0.1bc 
 Total-P (g/kg) ND 1.9 ± 0.3a 2.3 ± 0.2ab 2.8 ± 0.4abc 3.6 ± 0.4c 3.0 ± 0.4c 3 ± 0.2abc 
 Total-K (g/kg) 0.5 0.3 0.3 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1 0.5 0.4 0.4 ± 0.1 
 NH4-N (mg/kg) 175 ± 9 262 ± 37a 327 ± 19bc 311 ± 24ab 383 ± 31cd 353 ± 18bcd 401 ± 24d 
 NO3-N (mg/kg) 11.5 ± 1 22.9 ± 1.8a 38.1 ± 10.3b 33.7 ± 5.9ab 28.1 ± 2.8ab 37 ± 6ab 36.9 ± 4.1ab 
 OM% 1.6 ± 0.08 ND ND ND ND ND ND 
 C% 0.93 ± 0.05 ND ND ND ND ND ND 
 pH 6.7 ND ND ND ND ND ND 
Cambisol 
 Total-N (g/kg) 2 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 1a 0.9a 1.3 ± 0.1b 1.4 ± 0.1b 1.53 ± 0.1b 1.4 ± 0.1b 
 Total-P (g/kg) ND 2.7 ± 0.1a 3.7 ± 0.3ab 3.5 ± 0.3ab 4.2 ± 0.4ab 4.9 ± 0.5b 4.2 ± 0.2ab 
 Total-K (g/kg) 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 ± 0.1 0.5 
 NH4-N (mg/kg) 194.4 ± 10 287 ± 24a 354 ± 28ab 343 ± 14ab 391 ± 17b 375 ± 26b 394 ± 48b 
 NO3-N (mg/kg) 14.6 ± 2 28.8 ± 2.7ac 31.3 ± 1.8cd 38 ± 2.1b 33.4 ± 3.6d 36 ± 3d 39.9 ± 1.1b 
 OM% 1.78 ± 0.17 ND ND ND ND ND ND 
 C% 1.03 ± 0.1 ND ND ND ND ND ND 
 pH 7.2 ND ND ND ND ND ND 
  After maize harvesting
Before cultivationControl (no fertilization)IN-FECO-FI-DFS-IREC-DFS-IR/PGEC-SDFS-PG
Ferric Lixisol 
 Total-N (g/kg) 1 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.1a 1 ± 0.1bc 0.9ab 1.1 ± 0.1bc 1.1c 1.1 ± 0.1bc 
 Total-P (g/kg) ND 1.9 ± 0.3a 2.3 ± 0.2ab 2.8 ± 0.4abc 3.6 ± 0.4c 3.0 ± 0.4c 3 ± 0.2abc 
 Total-K (g/kg) 0.5 0.3 0.3 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1 0.5 0.4 0.4 ± 0.1 
 NH4-N (mg/kg) 175 ± 9 262 ± 37a 327 ± 19bc 311 ± 24ab 383 ± 31cd 353 ± 18bcd 401 ± 24d 
 NO3-N (mg/kg) 11.5 ± 1 22.9 ± 1.8a 38.1 ± 10.3b 33.7 ± 5.9ab 28.1 ± 2.8ab 37 ± 6ab 36.9 ± 4.1ab 
 OM% 1.6 ± 0.08 ND ND ND ND ND ND 
 C% 0.93 ± 0.05 ND ND ND ND ND ND 
 pH 6.7 ND ND ND ND ND ND 
Cambisol 
 Total-N (g/kg) 2 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 1a 0.9a 1.3 ± 0.1b 1.4 ± 0.1b 1.53 ± 0.1b 1.4 ± 0.1b 
 Total-P (g/kg) ND 2.7 ± 0.1a 3.7 ± 0.3ab 3.5 ± 0.3ab 4.2 ± 0.4ab 4.9 ± 0.5b 4.2 ± 0.2ab 
 Total-K (g/kg) 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 ± 0.1 0.5 
 NH4-N (mg/kg) 194.4 ± 10 287 ± 24a 354 ± 28ab 343 ± 14ab 391 ± 17b 375 ± 26b 394 ± 48b 
 NO3-N (mg/kg) 14.6 ± 2 28.8 ± 2.7ac 31.3 ± 1.8cd 38 ± 2.1b 33.4 ± 3.6d 36 ± 3d 39.9 ± 1.1b 
 OM% 1.78 ± 0.17 ND ND ND ND ND ND 
 C% 1.03 ± 0.1 ND ND ND ND ND ND 
 pH 7.2 ND ND ND ND ND ND 

Pooled data of both fertilizer application rates (i.e., 150 kgN/ha and 210 kgN/ha) (N = 3).

See the abbreviations in Table 1. ND, not determined.

Different letters in the same parameter in the same rows after harvesting are significantly different to each other in both growth media.

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