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The grain yields of this study (4.4 tons/ha for the Cambisol and 3.1 tons/ha for the Ferric Lixisol) for the co-composted DFS pellets at 210 kgN/ha (Table 4) were higher than the yield produced by compost or mineral fertilizer (Adamtey 2010; Pradhan et al. 2013). This might be because the nutrition release pattern of organo-mineral pellets is better (Alemi et al. 2010) than the non-pelleted compost used by Adamtey (2010) and Pradhan et al. (2013). The co-composted DFS produced 2 tons/ha (almost two times) more maize grains than the agro-industrial waste compost (ECO-F) in both soils and at both N-application rates (Table 4). This result showed that co-composted DFS can be used instead of ECO-F, and it can produce even higher maize yields. The high yield in co-composted DFS might be because of its organo-mineral compared to organic fertilizer alone (Soumaré et al. 2003; Mkhabela & Warman 2005; Makinde & Ayoola 2010). Another reason for the lower maize yield produced from agro-industrial waste compost may be that the agro-industrial waste compost used might have contained some chemical compounds that could inhibit the growth of maize. This result indicates that product control authorities should conduct cultivation tests as done in this work to ensure that the fertilizer value of commercial compost products compares to mineral fertilizer and non-fertilized controls.

Table 4

Maize grain yield (DW tons/ha), total biomass (DW tons/ha) and percentages of N, P, and K in maize grains produced using different fertilizer treatments and difference in N-application rates in both growth media (N = 3)

FertilizersN-application ratesControlIN-FECO-FI-DFS-IREC-DFS-IR/PGEC-SDFS-PG
Ferric Lixisol 
 Grain yield 150 kgN/ha 0.5 ± 0.2a 1.7 ± 0.2b 0.4 ± 0.1a 0.7 ± 0.2a 0.7 ± 0.1a 1.1 ± 0.2c 
210 kgN/ha 0.4 ± 0.2a 1.8 ± 0.6b 0.5 ± 0.2a 1.0 ± 0.2ab 1.2 ± 0.1ab 3.1 ± 0.6c 
 Total biomass 150 kgN/ha 1.2 ± 0.2a 6.4 ± 1.5bd 2.1 ± 0.3ac 3.4 ± 0.1ce 5.5 ± 0.8de 7.7 ± 0.5d 
210 kgN/ha 1.4 ± 0.2a 6.3 ± 0.4b 2.3 ± 0.2ac 3.3 ± 0.6cd 5.6 ± 0.4b 4.8 ± 0.9d 
 N% 150 kgN/ha 0.8 ± 0.03 0.9 ± 0.06 0.9 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.03 0.8 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.1 
210 kgN/ha 0.9 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.1 0.8 0.8 ± 0.03 0.8 ± 0.03 1.0 ± 0.03 
 P% 150 kgN/ha 0.4 ± 0.03a 0.5 ± 0.02b 0.7 ± 0.02c 0.8 ± 0.02d 0.7 ± 0.02c 0.8 ± 0.02d 
210 kgN/ha 0.4 ± 0.02a 0.6 ± 0.01b 0.8 ± 0.03c 0.9 ± 0.02c 0.8 ± 0.05c 0.8 ± 0.03c 
 K% 150 kgN/ha 2.2 ± 0.2ab 2.0 ± 0.13a 2.1 ± 0.12ab 2.3 ± 0.2ab 2.5 ± 0.2b 2.1 ± 0.16ab 
210 kgN/ha 2.0 ± 0.14a 2.5 ± 0.2bc 2.1 ± 0.14ab 2.8 ± 0.2c 2.9 ± 0.2c 1.8 ± 0.05a 
Cambisol 
 Grain yield 150 kgN/ha 1.7 ± 0.4a 3.3 ± 0.1b 2.4 ± 0.5ab 2.7 ± 0.1b 3 ± 0.1b 4.4 ± 0.2c 
210 kgN/ha 1.9 ± 0.1a 3.9 ± 0.7bc 2.2 ± 0.5ab 2.1 ± 0.3ab 3.8 ± 0.4abc 4.4 ± 1.5c 
 Total biomass 150 kgN/ha 6.5 ± 0.5a 7.8 ± 0.5ab 7.4 ± 1.0ab 9.4 ± 1.1ab 9.9 ± 1.7ab 11.6 ± 1.9b 
210 kgN/ha 13.5 ± 1.9a 15.1 ± 0.6ab 12.5 ± 3.9a 12.8 ± 3.2ab 18.4 ± 1b 15.3 ± 0.2ab 
 N% 150 kgN/ha 0.8 ± 0.02 0.9 ± 0.05 1.0 ± 0.04 0.8 ± 0.1 1.1 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.05 
210 kgN/ha 0.8 ± 0.02 1.0 ± 0.03 0.8 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.05 1.1 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.1 
 P% 150 kgN/ha 0.3 ± 0.02a 0.5 ± 0.03b 0.5 ± 0.02b 0.6 ± 0.04c 0.6 ± 0.01c 0.8 ± 0.01d 
210 kgN/ha 0.3 ± 0.01a 0.7 ± 0.02b 0.8 ± 0.02c 0.9 ± 0.03d 0.9 ± 0.01d 0.9 ± 0.02d 
 K% 150 kgN/ha 1.6 ± 0.2a 2.2 ± 0.2b 2.7 ± 0.3b 2.4 ± 0.2b 2.2 ± 0.2b 2.6 ± 0.3b 
210 kgN/ha 1.5 ± 0.03a 1.8 ± 0.2ac 2.5 ± 0.2d 1.7 ± 0.2a 2.2 ± 0.2dc 1.9 ± 0.1a 
FertilizersN-application ratesControlIN-FECO-FI-DFS-IREC-DFS-IR/PGEC-SDFS-PG
Ferric Lixisol 
 Grain yield 150 kgN/ha 0.5 ± 0.2a 1.7 ± 0.2b 0.4 ± 0.1a 0.7 ± 0.2a 0.7 ± 0.1a 1.1 ± 0.2c 
210 kgN/ha 0.4 ± 0.2a 1.8 ± 0.6b 0.5 ± 0.2a 1.0 ± 0.2ab 1.2 ± 0.1ab 3.1 ± 0.6c 
 Total biomass 150 kgN/ha 1.2 ± 0.2a 6.4 ± 1.5bd 2.1 ± 0.3ac 3.4 ± 0.1ce 5.5 ± 0.8de 7.7 ± 0.5d 
210 kgN/ha 1.4 ± 0.2a 6.3 ± 0.4b 2.3 ± 0.2ac 3.3 ± 0.6cd 5.6 ± 0.4b 4.8 ± 0.9d 
 N% 150 kgN/ha 0.8 ± 0.03 0.9 ± 0.06 0.9 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.03 0.8 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.1 
210 kgN/ha 0.9 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.1 0.8 0.8 ± 0.03 0.8 ± 0.03 1.0 ± 0.03 
 P% 150 kgN/ha 0.4 ± 0.03a 0.5 ± 0.02b 0.7 ± 0.02c 0.8 ± 0.02d 0.7 ± 0.02c 0.8 ± 0.02d 
210 kgN/ha 0.4 ± 0.02a 0.6 ± 0.01b 0.8 ± 0.03c 0.9 ± 0.02c 0.8 ± 0.05c 0.8 ± 0.03c 
 K% 150 kgN/ha 2.2 ± 0.2ab 2.0 ± 0.13a 2.1 ± 0.12ab 2.3 ± 0.2ab 2.5 ± 0.2b 2.1 ± 0.16ab 
210 kgN/ha 2.0 ± 0.14a 2.5 ± 0.2bc 2.1 ± 0.14ab 2.8 ± 0.2c 2.9 ± 0.2c 1.8 ± 0.05a 
Cambisol 
 Grain yield 150 kgN/ha 1.7 ± 0.4a 3.3 ± 0.1b 2.4 ± 0.5ab 2.7 ± 0.1b 3 ± 0.1b 4.4 ± 0.2c 
210 kgN/ha 1.9 ± 0.1a 3.9 ± 0.7bc 2.2 ± 0.5ab 2.1 ± 0.3ab 3.8 ± 0.4abc 4.4 ± 1.5c 
 Total biomass 150 kgN/ha 6.5 ± 0.5a 7.8 ± 0.5ab 7.4 ± 1.0ab 9.4 ± 1.1ab 9.9 ± 1.7ab 11.6 ± 1.9b 
210 kgN/ha 13.5 ± 1.9a 15.1 ± 0.6ab 12.5 ± 3.9a 12.8 ± 3.2ab 18.4 ± 1b 15.3 ± 0.2ab 
 N% 150 kgN/ha 0.8 ± 0.02 0.9 ± 0.05 1.0 ± 0.04 0.8 ± 0.1 1.1 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.05 
210 kgN/ha 0.8 ± 0.02 1.0 ± 0.03 0.8 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.05 1.1 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.1 
 P% 150 kgN/ha 0.3 ± 0.02a 0.5 ± 0.03b 0.5 ± 0.02b 0.6 ± 0.04c 0.6 ± 0.01c 0.8 ± 0.01d 
210 kgN/ha 0.3 ± 0.01a 0.7 ± 0.02b 0.8 ± 0.02c 0.9 ± 0.03d 0.9 ± 0.01d 0.9 ± 0.02d 
 K% 150 kgN/ha 1.6 ± 0.2a 2.2 ± 0.2b 2.7 ± 0.3b 2.4 ± 0.2b 2.2 ± 0.2b 2.6 ± 0.3b 
210 kgN/ha 1.5 ± 0.03a 1.8 ± 0.2ac 2.5 ± 0.2d 1.7 ± 0.2a 2.2 ± 0.2dc 1.9 ± 0.1a 

See the abbreviations in Table 1.

Different letters in the same rows show significant differences (P < 0.05) for grain yield, total biomass, and P and K.

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