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In phase 1, the groundwater analysis (GwA) methodology developed by Acacia Water was used to develop the groundwater potential maps (Acacia 2014). The Acacia GwA is designed to give ‘an indication of the areas with the highest potential for fresh groundwater occurrence’ (Acacia 2014). First, data from a range of satellite data sources were compiled. These included from SRTM, MODIS, TRMM, LANDSAT, AMSR-E, SMOS, RADAR-SAT 2, Google Earth and Data Phase 1. The specificity of these data was used at varying depths depending on the strength of the satellite imagery. Table 1 compares the penetration data (resolution) from the different satellites, while definitions of remote sensing data sources and platforms are indicated in Table 2.

Table 1

Remote sensing source and resolution

SourceResolutionData
ASTER VNIR 15 m  
Landsat -5-7-8, ASTER SWIR 30 m Vegetation indices like MODIS, Landsat, can provide an indication of the water availability at the rooting depth, which may stretch to slightly larger depths, but still remain an indication of only the shallowest presence of soil moisture 
SRTM 90 m 
MODIS 250 m 
ENVISAT ASAR 1,000 m  
AMSR-E, SMOS >1,000 m Soil moisture information derived from satellite data (AMSR-E, SMOS and ASAT) provides information about the water availability in the first (tens of) centimetres of the soil 
TRMM, ARC-2 0.25 degree, 0.1 degree (TRMM and ARC-2) a full map and the temporal variance of the precipitation over the area is obtained 
SourceResolutionData
ASTER VNIR 15 m  
Landsat -5-7-8, ASTER SWIR 30 m Vegetation indices like MODIS, Landsat, can provide an indication of the water availability at the rooting depth, which may stretch to slightly larger depths, but still remain an indication of only the shallowest presence of soil moisture 
SRTM 90 m 
MODIS 250 m 
ENVISAT ASAR 1,000 m  
AMSR-E, SMOS >1,000 m Soil moisture information derived from satellite data (AMSR-E, SMOS and ASAT) provides information about the water availability in the first (tens of) centimetres of the soil 
TRMM, ARC-2 0.25 degree, 0.1 degree (TRMM and ARC-2) a full map and the temporal variance of the precipitation over the area is obtained 
Table 2

Definition of remote sensing data sources and platforms

SourceTranslation
ASTER Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer 
VNIR Visible and near infrared 
Landsat -5-7-8 Continuous acquisition of satellite imagery of earth (versions 5, 7 and 8) 
SWIR Silicon wafer inspection with laser induced photoluminescence 
SRTM Shuttle Radar Topography Mission 
MODIS Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer 
ENVISAT Environmental Satellite 
ASAR Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar 
AMSR-E Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer – Earth Observing System 
SMOS Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity 
TRMM Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 
ARC-2 Advanced Room Correction-System 2 
SourceTranslation
ASTER Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer 
VNIR Visible and near infrared 
Landsat -5-7-8 Continuous acquisition of satellite imagery of earth (versions 5, 7 and 8) 
SWIR Silicon wafer inspection with laser induced photoluminescence 
SRTM Shuttle Radar Topography Mission 
MODIS Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer 
ENVISAT Environmental Satellite 
ASAR Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar 
AMSR-E Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer – Earth Observing System 
SMOS Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity 
TRMM Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 
ARC-2 Advanced Room Correction-System 2 

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