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APL due to billing anomalies and unauthorized consumption. An independent meter reading exercise was conducted on 59, 132 and 37 customers for Areas 15, 18 and 28, respectively, at the same time, when LWB meter readers carried out the exercise. This was done to establish a BEF which was used to estimate losses due to billing anomalies as explained in the section ‘Partitioning of apparent losses’. The volume lost through unauthorized consumption was estimated based on the fact that TAPL consist of losses due to meter inaccuracies, billing anomalies and unauthorized consumption, and that contribution of meter errors to APL was insignificant. Table 6 summarizes partitioning of APL in all the study areas.

Table 6

Estimation of APL in all the study areas

AreaTAPL (m3/month)BEFavgLba (m3/month)Lme (m3/month)Luc as a % of TAPLLuc (m3/month)
Area 15 445.49 7.2% 32.08 92.8% 413.41 
Area 18 5,431.40 32.2% 1,748.91 67.8% 3,682.49 
Area 28 4,706.07 17.6% 828.27 82.4% 3,877.80 
AreaTAPL (m3/month)BEFavgLba (m3/month)Lme (m3/month)Luc as a % of TAPLLuc (m3/month)
Area 15 445.49 7.2% 32.08 92.8% 413.41 
Area 18 5,431.40 32.2% 1,748.91 67.8% 3,682.49 
Area 28 4,706.07 17.6% 828.27 82.4% 3,877.80 

Lba=losses due to billing anomalies, Lme = losses due to meter errors, Luc = losses due to unauthorized consumption.

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