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The water intake rate is influenced by many factors. In recent years many studies have been carried out to determine the potential impacts of health through drinking water consumption habits. The mode of consumption of tap water (without boiling) varies between countries (Table 5). Therefore our study intended to focus on the seasonal patterns of drinking water consumption.

Table 5

Cold tap water intakes reported from other countries (L/day/person)

Country and study populationCold tap waterReferences
England and Wales 0.19 Westrell et al. (2006)  
United Kingdom, n = 416 0.70 Hunter et al. (2004); Mons et al. (2007) 
United Kingdom, n = 421 1.18 Hunter et al. (2004); Mons et al. (2007) 
United Kingdom, n = 143a 0.81 Kaur et al. (2004)  
Canada, n = 125 0.386 Levallois et al. (1998)  
USA, n = 33b 0.47 Shimokura et al. (1998)  
USA, n = 15,303 0.506c USEPA (2000)  
USA, n = 70a 0.81 USEPA (2000)  
Newzeland, n = 6,250 0.17 Mons et al. (2007)  
Netherlands 0.153d Westrell et al. (2006)  
Australia, n = 253 0.99 Robertson et al. (2000a, 2000b); Mons et al. (2007) 
Australia (Melb)en = 950 0.84 Robertson et al. (2000a, 2000b, 2002); Mons et al. (2007) 
Australia, (Adel)en = 644 0.71 Robertson et al. (2000a, 2000b, 2002); Mons et al. (2007) 
France (winter) 0.77 Gofti-Laroche et al. (2001)  
France (spring) 0.90 Gofti-Laroche et al. (2001)  
France, n = 1809 0.27 Beaudeau et al. (2003)  
Sweden, n = 35 1.44 Mons et al. (2007)  
Sweden, n = 40 1.55 Mons et al. (2007)  
Sweden, n = 157 0.86 Westrell et al. (2006)  
Denmark, n = 195 0.5 Dangendorf (2003); Mons et al. (2007) 
China 1.75 Xu et al. (2008); An et al. (2011)  
China 2.72 Duan et al. (2010); Shumin et al. (2012) 
Korea (spring) n = 1,092 1.01 Kyunghee et al. (2010)  
Korea (summer) n = 1,148 1.21 Kyunghee et al. (2010)  
India, West Bengal 3.12f Hossain et al. (2013)  
India, Karnataka, Mysore city (winter) 0.92c Present study 
India, Karnataka, Mysore city (summer) 1.12c Present study 
Country and study populationCold tap waterReferences
England and Wales 0.19 Westrell et al. (2006)  
United Kingdom, n = 416 0.70 Hunter et al. (2004); Mons et al. (2007) 
United Kingdom, n = 421 1.18 Hunter et al. (2004); Mons et al. (2007) 
United Kingdom, n = 143a 0.81 Kaur et al. (2004)  
Canada, n = 125 0.386 Levallois et al. (1998)  
USA, n = 33b 0.47 Shimokura et al. (1998)  
USA, n = 15,303 0.506c USEPA (2000)  
USA, n = 70a 0.81 USEPA (2000)  
Newzeland, n = 6,250 0.17 Mons et al. (2007)  
Netherlands 0.153d Westrell et al. (2006)  
Australia, n = 253 0.99 Robertson et al. (2000a, 2000b); Mons et al. (2007) 
Australia (Melb)en = 950 0.84 Robertson et al. (2000a, 2000b, 2002); Mons et al. (2007) 
Australia, (Adel)en = 644 0.71 Robertson et al. (2000a, 2000b, 2002); Mons et al. (2007) 
France (winter) 0.77 Gofti-Laroche et al. (2001)  
France (spring) 0.90 Gofti-Laroche et al. (2001)  
France, n = 1809 0.27 Beaudeau et al. (2003)  
Sweden, n = 35 1.44 Mons et al. (2007)  
Sweden, n = 40 1.55 Mons et al. (2007)  
Sweden, n = 157 0.86 Westrell et al. (2006)  
Denmark, n = 195 0.5 Dangendorf (2003); Mons et al. (2007) 
China 1.75 Xu et al. (2008); An et al. (2011)  
China 2.72 Duan et al. (2010); Shumin et al. (2012) 
Korea (spring) n = 1,092 1.01 Kyunghee et al. (2010)  
Korea (summer) n = 1,148 1.21 Kyunghee et al. (2010)  
India, West Bengal 3.12f Hossain et al. (2013)  
India, Karnataka, Mysore city (winter) 0.92c Present study 
India, Karnataka, Mysore city (summer) 1.12c Present study 

aStudies carried out in pregnant women.

bStudies carried out in male adult population.

cWater supplied from the municipal water supply.

dMedian cold water consumption.

eStudy carried out in one city.

fMean direct water intake.

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