Skip to Main Content

The Beit Dajan raw wastewater was more concentrated in terms of COD than the sewage in the Egyptian rural areas, Turkey, the Netherlands, Brazil and Columbia (Table 1). However, it was less concentrated than the sewage of the cities of Al Bireh and Amman, and still can be considered as medium strength according to the sewage strength classification proposed by Henze & Comeau (2008) and Metcalf & Eddy (2013). This is only for COD, for TKN it is the other way around. The TSS, BOD5 and total nitrogen (TN) values in Beit Dajan's sewage are higher than the values reported by Crites & Tchobanoglous (1998) and U.S. EPA (2002) for individual homes. However, the WERF (2007) study of individual homes has ranges of values that include the values in Beit Dajan sewage. The PO43−-P values are within the ranges presented by other studies. The total phosphate is approximately equal to ortho-phosphate in domestic sewage (Mahmoud et al. 2003). The BOD5 and COD concentrations did not show large daily variations over the measuring period, but TN and PO43−-P did, which may show that anthropogenic sources of TN and PO43−-P are more subjective to changes due to changes in occupancy of the house. The COD:BOD5 ratios of the raw wastewater in this study are comparable to the typical COD:BOD5 ratios of domestic wastewaters, with a range of 1.5–3.3 (Metcalf & Eddy 2013) (Table 2).

Table 2

The COD, BOD5, N and P ratios in raw wastewater and cesspit septage in Beit Dajan, Al Bireh wastewater and effluent UASB-septic tank treating wastewater in Al Bireh city

LocalityBeit Dajan
Al-Bireh
Wastewater typeRaw household wastewater
Septage
Raw sewered wastewaterEffluent of a UASB septic tank
ReferenceThis study
This study
Mahmoud et al. (2003) Al-Shayah & Mahmoud (2008) 
ParameterAverageRangeAverageRangeAverageAverage
COD:BOD5 2.12 (0.2) 1.75–2.47 3.35 (0.34) 2.95–3.88 2.05 2.13 
N:BOD5 0.4 (0.11) 0.22–0.64 0.67 (0.05) 0.59–0.79 0.13 0.28 
N:COD 0.2 (0.05) 0.11–0.3 0.20 (0.01) 0.19–0.23 0.07 0.15 
N:P 19.6 (4.6) 10.5–25.9 22.8 (4.02) 19–30 6.23 4.21 
LocalityBeit Dajan
Al-Bireh
Wastewater typeRaw household wastewater
Septage
Raw sewered wastewaterEffluent of a UASB septic tank
ReferenceThis study
This study
Mahmoud et al. (2003) Al-Shayah & Mahmoud (2008) 
ParameterAverageRangeAverageRangeAverageAverage
COD:BOD5 2.12 (0.2) 1.75–2.47 3.35 (0.34) 2.95–3.88 2.05 2.13 
N:BOD5 0.4 (0.11) 0.22–0.64 0.67 (0.05) 0.59–0.79 0.13 0.28 
N:COD 0.2 (0.05) 0.11–0.3 0.20 (0.01) 0.19–0.23 0.07 0.15 
N:P 19.6 (4.6) 10.5–25.9 22.8 (4.02) 19–30 6.23 4.21 

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal