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The heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Mn, Fe, Cr, Zn) concentrations in Beit Dajan individual household raw wastewater reveal that iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) have the highest concentrations (Table 3). Unfortunately, it was not possible to carry out a mass balance for the heavy metals, which is due to the very low concentration of these metals and the degree of sensitivity of the analysis.

Table 3

Heavy metals in raw wastewater and septage of a household in Beit Dajan during the filling period, Al Bireh City septage and raw and treated sewage in an extended aeration system compared with standards and guidelines

 CuNiPbMnFeCrZnReference
Raw household wastewater (Beit Dajan) 
 Avg 0.213 (0.081) 0.000 (0.000) 0.007 (0.019) 0.115(0.059) 1.567(1.284) 0.005 (0.014) 0.711 (0.947) This study 
 Range 0.047–0.328 0.000–0.000 0.000–0.060 0.050–0.242 0.460–4.600 0.000–0.042 0.228–4.080 This study 
Septage (Beit Dajan) 
 Avg 0.399 (0.170) 0.038 (0.023) 0.18 (0.077) 0.790 (0.386) 23.685 (8.980) 0.055 (0.018) 2.937 (0.962) This study 
 Range 0.172–0.652 0–0.068 0.096–0.286 0.388–1.454 12.48–36.4 0.032–0.08 1.64–4.26 This study 
Concentration factora 
 Avg 1.87 ≥2.5 ≥3.6 6.9 15 ≥3.66 4.13 This study 
Septage (Palestinian rural areas) 0.24 0.03 0.01 0.47 12.56 0.04 1.23 Amous (2014)  
Al Bireh city raw sewage 
 Avg 0.221 0.075 N/A N/A N/A 0.163 1.364 Samara (2009)  
 Max 0.72 0.117 N/A N/A N/A 0.227 3.496 Samara (2009)  
Al Bireh city treated effluent 
 Avg 0.11 0.03 N/A N/A N/A 0.057 0.478 Samara (2009)  
 Max 0.207 0.047 N/A N/A N/A 0.089 1.480 Samara (2009)  
Palestinian standards/treated sewage discharge to wadis 0.200 0.200 0.100 0.200 2.000 0.500 5.000 PSI (2003)  
Palestinian lowest specifications for agricultural use 0.200 0.200 0.200 0.200 5.000 0.100 2.000 PSI (2012)  
Max. HMs to be discharged in the public sewers 1.000 1.000 0.400 1.000 N/A 0.500 50.000 Sewerage municipal by-law/Al Bireh 
FAO guidelines for max. HMs 0.200 0.200 5.000 0.200 5.000 0.100 2.000 FAO (1992)  
 CuNiPbMnFeCrZnReference
Raw household wastewater (Beit Dajan) 
 Avg 0.213 (0.081) 0.000 (0.000) 0.007 (0.019) 0.115(0.059) 1.567(1.284) 0.005 (0.014) 0.711 (0.947) This study 
 Range 0.047–0.328 0.000–0.000 0.000–0.060 0.050–0.242 0.460–4.600 0.000–0.042 0.228–4.080 This study 
Septage (Beit Dajan) 
 Avg 0.399 (0.170) 0.038 (0.023) 0.18 (0.077) 0.790 (0.386) 23.685 (8.980) 0.055 (0.018) 2.937 (0.962) This study 
 Range 0.172–0.652 0–0.068 0.096–0.286 0.388–1.454 12.48–36.4 0.032–0.08 1.64–4.26 This study 
Concentration factora 
 Avg 1.87 ≥2.5 ≥3.6 6.9 15 ≥3.66 4.13 This study 
Septage (Palestinian rural areas) 0.24 0.03 0.01 0.47 12.56 0.04 1.23 Amous (2014)  
Al Bireh city raw sewage 
 Avg 0.221 0.075 N/A N/A N/A 0.163 1.364 Samara (2009)  
 Max 0.72 0.117 N/A N/A N/A 0.227 3.496 Samara (2009)  
Al Bireh city treated effluent 
 Avg 0.11 0.03 N/A N/A N/A 0.057 0.478 Samara (2009)  
 Max 0.207 0.047 N/A N/A N/A 0.089 1.480 Samara (2009)  
Palestinian standards/treated sewage discharge to wadis 0.200 0.200 0.100 0.200 2.000 0.500 5.000 PSI (2003)  
Palestinian lowest specifications for agricultural use 0.200 0.200 0.200 0.200 5.000 0.100 2.000 PSI (2012)  
Max. HMs to be discharged in the public sewers 1.000 1.000 0.400 1.000 N/A 0.500 50.000 Sewerage municipal by-law/Al Bireh 
FAO guidelines for max. HMs 0.200 0.200 5.000 0.200 5.000 0.100 2.000 FAO (1992)  

All parameters are in ppm; N/A: not available.

Raw wastewater: monitored over 15 consecutive days of 24 hours composite samples each (number of samples 15); Septage monitored over the whole filling period of 120 days (number of samples 6).

aConcentration factor = (heavy metal concentration in septage/heavy metal concentration in raw wastewater), and when heavy metal concentration in raw wastewater was below detection limit, the detection limit was considered, as in the case of Ni, Pb and Cr.

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