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The specific organic matter production in terms of BOD5 and COD in Beit Dajan individual household wastewater were almost half of the reference wastewaters of the Netherlands (Kujawa-Roeleveld et al. 2000) and of the Al Bireh City in Palestine (Mahmoud et al. 2003) (Table 4). This is attributed, based on interviews, to the socio-cultural-economical habit of very careful discarding of any remaining food in the dish washing sink in small towns and rural areas. In the major towns and cities of Palestine, however, discarding the remaining food and used cooking oil in kitchen sinks is believed to play a central role in increasing sewage strength. Henze & Comeau (2008) showed that the application of ‘clean tech cooking’ can reduce the COD load of grey water from 55 to 32 gCOD/c d. Henze & Comeau (2008) reported that kitchen waste contributes around 35% to the COD content of the traditional household waterborne wastes, and can even be much higher in cases where more solid waste is directed to the sewer system. Likewise for organic content, the specific P production is very low, which reflects low use of detergents, since washing machines and wash basins are significant contributors of orthophosphate in domestic wastewater. The specific N production is close to the reference wastes because the source of N remains unchanged (Table 4). It is estimated that around 85 and 47% of the waterborne waste N and P content originates from urine (Henze & Comeau (2008). The wastes that people put in the sink in large cities have COD, but only a low content of N (Henze & Comeau 2008).

Table 4

Specific pollutants production rate (g/c d) in raw wastewater from an individual home in Beit Dajan as compared with household and sewered sewage from literature, and emptied septage and percentage removal in cesspit and emptied septage

 Beit Dajan/ Palestine
   
 Raw wastewater (household)Emptied septage
Removal in cesspit
   
ReferencesThis studyThis study
This study
Al-Bireh/Palestine Raw sewage (sewered) Mahmoud et al. (2003) The Netherlands Raw sewage (sewered) Kujawa-Roeleveld et al. (2000) USA Raw sewage (household) WERF (2007) 
Parametersg/c dg/c d%g/c d%g/c dg/c dg/c d
BOD5 25 5.6 22 19.4 78 60 – 50–70 
COD 51 19 38 32 62 170 102 – 
TN 10 4.8 48 5.2 52 11 12.9 10.3 
PO43−-P 0.51 0.17 33 0.34 66 1.4 1.7 1.7 
TSS 83 26 31 57 69 – – – 
 Beit Dajan/ Palestine
   
 Raw wastewater (household)Emptied septage
Removal in cesspit
   
ReferencesThis studyThis study
This study
Al-Bireh/Palestine Raw sewage (sewered) Mahmoud et al. (2003) The Netherlands Raw sewage (sewered) Kujawa-Roeleveld et al. (2000) USA Raw sewage (household) WERF (2007) 
Parametersg/c dg/c d%g/c d%g/c dg/c dg/c d
BOD5 25 5.6 22 19.4 78 60 – 50–70 
COD 51 19 38 32 62 170 102 – 
TN 10 4.8 48 5.2 52 11 12.9 10.3 
PO43−-P 0.51 0.17 33 0.34 66 1.4 1.7 1.7 
TSS 83 26 31 57 69 – – – 

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