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There are six studies included in the sanitation intervention group, with dates of publication ranging from 2005 to 2014, and a total study population of 35,163 was observed (Table 2). Based on χ2 = 44.04 (P < 0.01), a low degree of inter-study heterogeneity was determined, and a random-effects model should be used for combined RR. The overall pooled estimate indicates that sanitation interventions are effective in reducing diarrheal disease (RR with random-effects model is 0.55, 95% CI 0.36–0.85).

Table 2

Summary of included sanitation intervention studies

 Intervention group
Control group
Authors and publishing yearNo. of casesStudy populationNo. of casesStudy populationWeight (%)RR95% CI
Zhuang et al. (2005)  150 3,084 261 2,952 19.5 0.55 0.45 ∼ 0.67 
Zhengkui et al. (2005)  30 5,007 72 6,579 16.9 0.55 0.36 ∼ 0.84 
Liu et al. (2007)  19 1,028 1,075 9.9 3.97 1.49 ∼ 10.6 
Wang (2011)  57 2,800 197 2,780 18.6 0.29 0.21 ∼ 0.38 
Yun et al. (2013)  95 5,241 46 1,807 17.9 0.71 0.50 ∼ 1.01 
Wang et al. (2014)  29 1,406 104 1,404 17.2 0.28 0.19 ∼ 0.42 
 Intervention group
Control group
Authors and publishing yearNo. of casesStudy populationNo. of casesStudy populationWeight (%)RR95% CI
Zhuang et al. (2005)  150 3,084 261 2,952 19.5 0.55 0.45 ∼ 0.67 
Zhengkui et al. (2005)  30 5,007 72 6,579 16.9 0.55 0.36 ∼ 0.84 
Liu et al. (2007)  19 1,028 1,075 9.9 3.97 1.49 ∼ 10.6 
Wang (2011)  57 2,800 197 2,780 18.6 0.29 0.21 ∼ 0.38 
Yun et al. (2013)  95 5,241 46 1,807 17.9 0.71 0.50 ∼ 1.01 
Wang et al. (2014)  29 1,406 104 1,404 17.2 0.28 0.19 ∼ 0.42 

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