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There are 4 studies included in the health education intervention group, with dates of publication ranging from 1997 to 2009, and a total study population of 24,962 was observed (Table 3). Based on χ2 = 1.54 (P = 0.67), a high degree of inter-study heterogeneity was determined, and a fixed-effects model should be used for combined RR. The overall pooled estimate indicates that health education interventions are effective in reducing diarrheal disease (RR with fixed-effects model is 0.50, 95% CI 0.44–0.56).

Table 3

Summary of included health education intervention studies

 Intervention group
Control group
Authors and publishing yearNo. of casesStudy populationNo. of casesStudy populationWeight (%)RR95% CI
Rao (1997)  164 1,978 295 1,824 40.4 0.51 0.43 ∼ 0.61 
Gu et al. (2004)  33 4,756 52 4,619 6.9 0.62 0.40 ∼ 0.95 
Mo et al. (2008)  16 858 41 1,193 4.5 0.54 0.31 ∼ 0.96 
Gu et al. (2009)  177 5,014 355 4,720 48.1 0.47 0.39 ∼ 0.56 
 Intervention group
Control group
Authors and publishing yearNo. of casesStudy populationNo. of casesStudy populationWeight (%)RR95% CI
Rao (1997)  164 1,978 295 1,824 40.4 0.51 0.43 ∼ 0.61 
Gu et al. (2004)  33 4,756 52 4,619 6.9 0.62 0.40 ∼ 0.95 
Mo et al. (2008)  16 858 41 1,193 4.5 0.54 0.31 ∼ 0.96 
Gu et al. (2009)  177 5,014 355 4,720 48.1 0.47 0.39 ∼ 0.56 

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