Skip to Main Content

There are nine studies included in the multiple intervention group, with dates of publication ranging from 1989 to 2014, and a total study population of 43,797 was observed (Table 4). Based on χ2 = 54.10 (P < 0.01), a high degree of inter-study heterogeneity was concluded. The overall pooled estimate indicates that sanitation interventions are effective in reducing diarrheal disease (RR with random-effects model is 0.35, 95% CI 0.29–0.44).

Table 4

Summary of included multiple intervention studies

 Intervention group
Control group
Authors and publishing yearNo. of casesStudy populationNo. of casesStudy populationWeight (%)RR95% CI
Lou et al. (1989)  272 2,455 309 850 18.0 0.30 0.26 ∼ 0.35 
Zhu & Xia (1997)  129 1,733 320 1,739 12.6 0.40 0.33 ∼ 0.49 
Xiao & Lin (1997)  684 2,469 1,716 2,341 69.4 0.38 0.35 ∼ 0.40 
Zhang et al. (2000)  29 1,172 83 1,864 18.0 0.56 0.37 ∼ 0.84 
Cao & Zhang (2007)  1,719 1,278 9.8 0.25 0.07 ∼ 0.91 
Jin et al. (2009)  48 6,872 67 5,173 18.4 0.54 0.37 ∼ 0.78 
Wang (2011)  37 2,902 197 2,780 18.6 0.18 0.13 ∼ 0.25 
Yun et al. (2013)  60 3,779 46 1,807 18.3 0.62 0.43 ∼ 0.91 
Wang et al. (2014)  14 1,460 104 1404 16.8 0.54 0.37 ∼ 0.78 
 Intervention group
Control group
Authors and publishing yearNo. of casesStudy populationNo. of casesStudy populationWeight (%)RR95% CI
Lou et al. (1989)  272 2,455 309 850 18.0 0.30 0.26 ∼ 0.35 
Zhu & Xia (1997)  129 1,733 320 1,739 12.6 0.40 0.33 ∼ 0.49 
Xiao & Lin (1997)  684 2,469 1,716 2,341 69.4 0.38 0.35 ∼ 0.40 
Zhang et al. (2000)  29 1,172 83 1,864 18.0 0.56 0.37 ∼ 0.84 
Cao & Zhang (2007)  1,719 1,278 9.8 0.25 0.07 ∼ 0.91 
Jin et al. (2009)  48 6,872 67 5,173 18.4 0.54 0.37 ∼ 0.78 
Wang (2011)  37 2,902 197 2,780 18.6 0.18 0.13 ∼ 0.25 
Yun et al. (2013)  60 3,779 46 1,807 18.3 0.62 0.43 ∼ 0.91 
Wang et al. (2014)  14 1,460 104 1404 16.8 0.54 0.37 ∼ 0.78 

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal