Skip to Main Content

In the second stage of the study, the results obtained from the analysis of the quantitative data served as the basis for selecting sites for in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs). Three regions where uptake of improved household sanitation was low were selected. These regions were the Volta, Brong-Ahafo and the Northern regions. The three regions reflect the main ecological zones of the country – coastal, forest and the savannah, respectively. Despite the fact that residents in rural areas in Ghana have the lowest coverage of improved sanitation (WHO/UNICEF 2013), we intentionally selected urban areas for further inquiry because the impact of inadequate sanitation is grave in urban areas (Kimani-Murage et al. 2014) and because cholera, diarrhoea and dysentery epidemics occur more often in urban areas than rural (World Health Organisation (WHO) 2013). For example, the recent cholera outbreaks in Ghana were mainly clustered in large urban communities, on the regional capitals. Consequently, the regional capital of each of the three regions was selected. Purposive sampling was used to select suburbs where IDIs and FGDs were conducted. The suburbs are not specifically mentioned for ethical reasons. In addition, we purposively interviewed the heads of the following bodies: Regional Environmental Health Office (REHO), and Municipal/Metropolitan/District Environmental Health Office (MEHO/DEHO). Ten landlords/landladies/owners/care takers (henceforth called homeowners) and 20 tenants were purposively selected and interviewed in each suburb. The main criterion for inclusion in the interviews and the FGDs was being a resident in a house without a toilet facility. For homeowners, our goal was to understand their reasons for not making efforts to provide improved sanitation services, and for the tenants, our motivation was to understand how sanitation featured in their home renting decision-making. Apart from the IDIs, six FGDs were conducted – two in each suburb among males and females, respectively. In all, a total of 150 individuals participated in the study (IDIs = 102 and FGDs = 48). An important caveat that should be noted is that the sample of respondents for the interviews is not statistically representative. Sampling was opportunistic: in each settlement, the research team interviewed house owners or tenants who were present and available for interview. Table 1 provides the summary of the distribution of respondents.

Table 1

Sample for the study

SampleEcological zones
TamaleSunyaniHoTotal
Tenants 20 20 20 60 
House owners 10 10 10 30 
REHO 
DEHO 
WMD 
Zoomlion 
Total 34 34 34 102 
FGDs 
SampleEcological zones
TamaleSunyaniHoTotal
Tenants 20 20 20 60 
House owners 10 10 10 30 
REHO 
DEHO 
WMD 
Zoomlion 
Total 34 34 34 102 
FGDs 

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal