Skip to Main Content

The results are presented under two sub-headings, namely, descriptive characteristics of survey respondents (Table 2) and the distribution of survey participants by household improved sanitation (Table 3). A weighted final sample of 9,736 was obtained for the analysis. In terms of household wealth quintile, a little more than one-quarter (28.9%) of the respondents were in the richest quintile, while 6.8% were in the poorest category. About one-fifth of surveyed households were in the Greater Accra region and the majority (59.7%) of households were in urban areas (data not shown).

Table 2

Distribution of household sanitation facilities by socioeconomic characteristics

Covariates% Using improved sanitationNo.
Wealth χ2 = 847.6 (p < 0.000)   
 Poorest 15.0 659 
 Second 8.0 1673 
 Middle 8.0 2,132 
 Richer 11.2 2,459 
 Richest 38.6 2,811 
Region χ2 = 183.82 (p < 0.000)   
 Western 18.3 971 
 Central 13.0 1,061 
 Greater Accra 28.0 2,158 
 Volta 8.0 763 
 Eastern 17.5 1,453 
 Asante 17.5 2,110 
 Brong-Ahafo 10.3 866 
 Northern 17.8 214 
 Upper East 26.5 52 
 Upper West 16.7 82 
Type of place of residence χ2 = 89.5466 (p < 0.000)   
 Urban 21.6 5,809 
 Rural 12.8 3,927 
Type of district χ2 = 68.8213 (p < 0.0011)  
 Ordinary 13.8 4,301 
 Municipal 21.1 3,317 
 Metropolitan 21.7 2,117 
Sex of head of household χ2 = 11.8261 (p < 0.0166)  
 Male 19.1 6,580 
 Female 15.8 3,155 
Education of head of household χ2 = 319.93 (p < 0.000)  
 None 11.9 1,825 
 Primary 8.0 1,204 
 Middle/JSS 15.6 4,115 
 Secondary/Higher 31.0 2,587 
Religion of head of household χ2 = 52.29 (p < 0.000)   
 Catholic 20.5 1,205 
 Protestant 22.3 1,971 
 Pentecostal/Charismatic 17.2 3,615 
 Other 20.0 894 
 Muslim 15.0 1,083 
 Traditional 10.0 207 
 Spiritual 11.4 758 
Ethnicity χ2 = 8.62 (p < 0.4264)  
 Akan 18.8 5,345 
 Ga/Dangme 19.7 1,016 
 Ewe 16.8 1,495 
 Mole-Dagbani 15.0 873 
 Others 17.0 1,005 
Household ownership χ2 = 121.66 (p < 0.000)  
 Own 24.2 3,718 
 Rent 14.5 3,047 
 Rent free 13.3 2,728 
 Caretaker 22.6 241 
Covariates% Using improved sanitationNo.
Wealth χ2 = 847.6 (p < 0.000)   
 Poorest 15.0 659 
 Second 8.0 1673 
 Middle 8.0 2,132 
 Richer 11.2 2,459 
 Richest 38.6 2,811 
Region χ2 = 183.82 (p < 0.000)   
 Western 18.3 971 
 Central 13.0 1,061 
 Greater Accra 28.0 2,158 
 Volta 8.0 763 
 Eastern 17.5 1,453 
 Asante 17.5 2,110 
 Brong-Ahafo 10.3 866 
 Northern 17.8 214 
 Upper East 26.5 52 
 Upper West 16.7 82 
Type of place of residence χ2 = 89.5466 (p < 0.000)   
 Urban 21.6 5,809 
 Rural 12.8 3,927 
Type of district χ2 = 68.8213 (p < 0.0011)  
 Ordinary 13.8 4,301 
 Municipal 21.1 3,317 
 Metropolitan 21.7 2,117 
Sex of head of household χ2 = 11.8261 (p < 0.0166)  
 Male 19.1 6,580 
 Female 15.8 3,155 
Education of head of household χ2 = 319.93 (p < 0.000)  
 None 11.9 1,825 
 Primary 8.0 1,204 
 Middle/JSS 15.6 4,115 
 Secondary/Higher 31.0 2,587 
Religion of head of household χ2 = 52.29 (p < 0.000)   
 Catholic 20.5 1,205 
 Protestant 22.3 1,971 
 Pentecostal/Charismatic 17.2 3,615 
 Other 20.0 894 
 Muslim 15.0 1,083 
 Traditional 10.0 207 
 Spiritual 11.4 758 
Ethnicity χ2 = 8.62 (p < 0.4264)  
 Akan 18.8 5,345 
 Ga/Dangme 19.7 1,016 
 Ewe 16.8 1,495 
 Mole-Dagbani 15.0 873 
 Others 17.0 1,005 
Household ownership χ2 = 121.66 (p < 0.000)  
 Own 24.2 3,718 
 Rent 14.5 3,047 
 Rent free 13.3 2,728 
 Caretaker 22.6 241 

Computed from Ghana Statistical Service (2011).

Table 3

Multilevel analysis of wealth and related covariates of household access to improved sanitation in Ghana, 2011

FactorsModel I
Model II
ORStd. errorORStd. error
Wealth 
 Poorest   
 Poorer 0.54** (0.085) 0.63** (0.10) 
 Average/middle 0.63* (0.13) 0.93 (0.18) 
 Richer 0.83 (0.19) 1.54+ (0.37) 
 Richest 4.33** (1.16) 9.76** (2.74) 
Religion 
 Catholic   (.) 
 Protestant   1.05 (0.131) 
 Pentecostal/Charismatic   0.86 (0.101) 
 Other   1.02 (0.158) 
 Muslim   0.79+ (0.113) 
 Traditional   0.64 (0.186) 
 Spiritual   0.58** (0.108) 
Ethnicity 
 Akan   (.) 
 Ga/Dangme   0.76+ (0.113) 
 Ewe   1.10 (0.142) 
 Mole-Dagbani   1.04 (0.163) 
 Others   1.29+ (0.173) 
Home ownership 
 Own   (.) 
 Rent   0.19** (0.0196) 
 Rent free   0.31** (0.0313) 
 Caretaker   1.35 (0.293) 
Education 
 None   (.) 
 Primary   0.78 (0.121) 
 Middle/JSS   1.07 (0.126) 
 Secondary/Higher   1.78** (0.230) 
Type of district 
 Ordinary   (.) 
 Municipal   0.88 (0.0844) 
 Metropolitan   0.79+ (0.0975) 
Urban–rural residence 
 Rural    
 Urban   0.82+ (0.0844) 
Sex of head of household 
 Female    
 Male   1.00 (0.084) 
  − 2 log likelihood −2,845.08  −2,636.12  
 Cons 0.15** (0.034) 0.19** (0.05) 
 Regional variance 1.03 (0.022) 1.03 (0.02) 
 Covariance (region-wealth) 0.88 (0.082) 0.91 (0.07) 
No. 7,167  7166  
AIC 5,706.2  5,328.3  
FactorsModel I
Model II
ORStd. errorORStd. error
Wealth 
 Poorest   
 Poorer 0.54** (0.085) 0.63** (0.10) 
 Average/middle 0.63* (0.13) 0.93 (0.18) 
 Richer 0.83 (0.19) 1.54+ (0.37) 
 Richest 4.33** (1.16) 9.76** (2.74) 
Religion 
 Catholic   (.) 
 Protestant   1.05 (0.131) 
 Pentecostal/Charismatic   0.86 (0.101) 
 Other   1.02 (0.158) 
 Muslim   0.79+ (0.113) 
 Traditional   0.64 (0.186) 
 Spiritual   0.58** (0.108) 
Ethnicity 
 Akan   (.) 
 Ga/Dangme   0.76+ (0.113) 
 Ewe   1.10 (0.142) 
 Mole-Dagbani   1.04 (0.163) 
 Others   1.29+ (0.173) 
Home ownership 
 Own   (.) 
 Rent   0.19** (0.0196) 
 Rent free   0.31** (0.0313) 
 Caretaker   1.35 (0.293) 
Education 
 None   (.) 
 Primary   0.78 (0.121) 
 Middle/JSS   1.07 (0.126) 
 Secondary/Higher   1.78** (0.230) 
Type of district 
 Ordinary   (.) 
 Municipal   0.88 (0.0844) 
 Metropolitan   0.79+ (0.0975) 
Urban–rural residence 
 Rural    
 Urban   0.82+ (0.0844) 
Sex of head of household 
 Female    
 Male   1.00 (0.084) 
  − 2 log likelihood −2,845.08  −2,636.12  
 Cons 0.15** (0.034) 0.19** (0.05) 
 Regional variance 1.03 (0.022) 1.03 (0.02) 
 Covariance (region-wealth) 0.88 (0.082) 0.91 (0.07) 
No. 7,167  7166  
AIC 5,706.2  5,328.3  

+ p < 0.10.

*p < 0.05.

**p < 0.01.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal