Skip to Main Content

The average household size in our sample was 4.56 (Table 1). In 50% of households, the highest level of education was secondary school (Class 6–10); while in 34% of the cases primary education was the highest education level, indicating a literate sample. Separately, respondents were asked to rank (on a scale of 1–10) how safe for public health, manual and mechanized practices of emptying would be. The average rank for the manual emptying was 6.4, but for a mechanized process the average rank was 9.5. This indicates that respondents have some awareness regarding the relative risks of manual emptying viz. mechanical emptying. The mean annual income was USD 1,246, amounting to approximately USD 2.8/day after being adjusted for inflation and expressed in 2005 equivalent dollars. This is just over twice the World Bank-defined international poverty line of USD 1.25/day in 2005 purchasing power parity. Around 66% of households were involved in non-farming occupations, while a similar number reported living in houses with brick walls. Metal sheet was the most common roofing material. Comparing these statistics to the 2011 Census indicates that the sample is representative of Bhaluka Upazila.

Table 1

Summary statistics for household study (n = 1,091 households)

MeanStd Dev
No. of family members 4.56 1.71 
% households where highest education is: 
 Class 1–5 0.34 0.47 
 Class 6–10 0.46 0.5 
 Class 11–12 0.08 0.27 
 Beyond Class 12 0.05 0.22 
No. concrete liners in the pit 2.36 1.14 
Annual household income (USD) 1,245.61 1,077.83 
No. women/household making toilet-management decisions 1.17 0.66 
% households with non-farming income source 0.67 0.47 
% households with brick walls 0.68 0.47 
% households with metal sheet roof 0.97 0.17 
MeanStd Dev
No. of family members 4.56 1.71 
% households where highest education is: 
 Class 1–5 0.34 0.47 
 Class 6–10 0.46 0.5 
 Class 11–12 0.08 0.27 
 Beyond Class 12 0.05 0.22 
No. concrete liners in the pit 2.36 1.14 
Annual household income (USD) 1,245.61 1,077.83 
No. women/household making toilet-management decisions 1.17 0.66 
% households with non-farming income source 0.67 0.47 
% households with brick walls 0.68 0.47 
% households with metal sheet roof 0.97 0.17 

Source: Authors' data.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal