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One of the most important issues in sanitation management has to do with urine odor. Many kinds of toilets use water to dilute and flush down urine to avoid this odor (Larsen et al. 2001). The amount of water and the dilution ratio resulting from this may vary according to the type of sanitary system and the amount of flushing water, as shown in Table 1 (Hashemi et al. 2015a, 2015b). Nevertheless, the dilution of urine using flushing in sanitary systems leads to much water being consumed and produces significant amounts of wastewater.

Table 1

Types of sanitation practices for urination and related water consumption

Sanitation practiceWater consumption (L per flush)Dilution ratio for 500 mL urine
Open urination  
Waterless sanitation systems  
Men's urinals (including water saving types)  0.5–4 1–8 
Water saving toilets  4–8 8–16 
Flushing toilets  9–15 18–30 
Sanitation practiceWater consumption (L per flush)Dilution ratio for 500 mL urine
Open urination  
Waterless sanitation systems  
Men's urinals (including water saving types)  0.5–4 1–8 
Water saving toilets  4–8 8–16 
Flushing toilets  9–15 18–30 

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