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To dilute the urine samples, tap water from the Seoul metropolitan water supply system was used. The pH, ammonia concentration, TDS, and temperature of the tap water samples were measured immediately after sampling using methods similar to those applied to the urine samples. Table 2 presents the initial characteristics of the raw materials.

Table 2

Initial characteristics of the raw material samples

SamplespHAmmonia concentration (mg/L)TDS (mg/L)Temperature (°C)
Urine 9.8 ± 0.2 6,152 7,683 20 ± 3 
Tap water 7.4 ± 0.2 Not detected (<0.001 mg/L) 118 15 ± 2 
SamplespHAmmonia concentration (mg/L)TDS (mg/L)Temperature (°C)
Urine 9.8 ± 0.2 6,152 7,683 20 ± 3 
Tap water 7.4 ± 0.2 Not detected (<0.001 mg/L) 118 15 ± 2 

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